• adverse reactions;
  • anaesthesia;
  • heart rate;
  • hypothermia;
  • pig


Observations  A total of 13 intracerebral infusions were performed at approximately 1 month intervals in three NIH miniature pigs over the age range of 31–59 weeks. Pigs received azaperone and ketamine premedication to allow venous cannulation and propofol induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane throughout cranial surgery and MRI scanning. Physiological monitoring during surgery consisted of blood pressure, pulse, temperature and oxygen saturation monitoring, ECG and capnography. Analgesia consisted of meloxicam and morphine. However, during MRI scanning blood pressure and ECG monitoring had to be discontinued. Anaesthetized pigs underwent intermittent intraputamenal convection enhanced delivery (CED) of gadolinium with real-time magnetic resonance imaging. Progressive tachycardia was consistently observed in all pigs during CED with a mean ± SD maximum increase of 41 ± 22 beats minute−1 from a baseline heart rate of 96 ± 9 minute−1. The heart rate remained elevated until recovery. A mean reduction in body temperature of 2.8 ± 0.6 °C from the start of anaesthesia was also observed during the period of MRI scanning. All pigs recovered from anaesthesia smoothly and heart rates returned to normal during the recovery period.

Conclusions  Hypothermia is common in pigs undergoing this sedation and anaesthesia protocol. Convection enhanced delivery of drugs in healthy anaesthetized pigs may result in tachycardia.