The aim of this paper is to review the theoretical and empirical literature on the impact of the affiliation of venture capital (VC) firms with a particular focus on the differences between Europe and the US. A main characteristic of VC firms is their high level of involvement in the management of funded firms. However, the VC industry is composed of heterogeneous actors. The literature has studied to a great degree the independent funds that dominate the US market. Yet, there also exist VC funds affiliated with banks or with industrial firm, which can benefit from synergies with their parent corporation. Several studies have highlighted significant differences between these types of VC firms.