The authors wish to thank the many respondents and the organizational representatives who worked with the researchers; the systems programmers who collected and organized the computer-monitored data; Tora Bikson and J. D. Eveland for their help in facilitating the collection and preparation of computer-monitored data at one site; Bonnie Johnson and Jack Torobin for their help in collecting and preparing data at one site; and Douglas Hughes for his help in preparing data from one of the sites and in organizing some of the meta-analysis data. We especially thank Joseph Schmitz for providing the data from one site. We would also like to acknowledge helpful comments from Janet Fulk, Charles Steinfield, Robert Zmud, Richard Daft, and anonymous reviewers.
RELATIONSHIPS OF JOB CATEGORIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS TO USE OF COMMUNICATION CHANNELS, INCLUDING ELECTRONIC MAIL: A META-ANALYSIS AND EXTENSION*
Article first published online: 5 MAY 2007
Journal of Management Studies
Volume 27, Issue 2, pages 195–229, March 1990
How to Cite
Rice, R. E. and Shook, D. E. (1990), RELATIONSHIPS OF JOB CATEGORIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS TO USE OF COMMUNICATION CHANNELS, INCLUDING ELECTRONIC MAIL: A META-ANALYSIS AND EXTENSION. Journal of Management Studies, 27: 195–229. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.1990.tb00760.x
- Issue published online: 5 MAY 2007
- Article first published online: 5 MAY 2007
This study tests hypotheses derived from information processing theory concerning relationships between individuals' job category, organizational level, and levels and patterns of media usage. Media studied include face-to-face, meetings, memos/letters, telephone and electronic mail. In the meta-analysis of over 40 studies, usage of different media was significantly different for managers/executives versus others, and was highly correlated with organizational level. In the individual-level analyses of four organizations, the majority of respondents were classified into their actual job categories, and according to distances between organizational levels, by a discriminant function involving only relative extent of media use, especially participation in meetings. Contrary to information richness theory, upper-level respondents (managers) did not necessarily use electronic mail less than did lower-level respondents (clerical workers). The article concludes by discussing implications for theories of organizational media use and implementation of electronic mail systems.