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Corporate Governance and the Environment: What Type of Governance Creates Greener Companies?


Carl Joachim Kock, Instituto de Empresa, María de Molina 12, 4th floor, 28006 Madrid, Spain (


We build on a stakeholder–agency theoretical perspective to explore the impact of particular corporate governance mechanisms on firm environmental performance. Our empirical evidence shows that several important corporate governance mechanisms such as the board of directors, managerial incentives, the market for corporate control, and the legal and regulatory system determine firms' environmental performance levels. These results suggest that these different governance mechanisms resolve, to some extent, the existing divergence of interests between stakeholders and managers with respect to environmental activities.