. Preparation of this manuscript was facilitated by Grant: #DAHC19-75-0002 and #DAHC19-77-M-0025 from the U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Direct and vicarious censure in the control of interracial aggression1
Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
Journal of Personality
Volume 46, Issue 1, pages 162–175, March 1978
How to Cite
Donnerstein, M. and Donnerstein, E. (1978), Direct and vicarious censure in the control of interracial aggression. Journal of Personality, 46: 162–175. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1978.tb00608.x
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2006
- Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
- Manuscript received November 29, 1976.
An experiment explored the relative effectiveness of two strategies for controlling interracial aggression: observing other individuals censured for aggression and potential direct censure of the aggressor himself. Subjects were provided with an opportunity to aggress under conditions designed to maximize or reduce each type of censure. A principal components analysis of the data revealed two orthogonal variates: direct aggression and indirect aggression. It was found that both observed censure and potential direct censure were effective in modifying directly aggressive responses. However, these forms of censure interacted in their effect on indirect aggression, such that observed censure was effective in reducing indirect aggression only under conditions of potential direct censure.