Toward a multi-factor theory of styles and their relationships to cognition and affect1


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    . The preparation of this paper was aided by support of Canada Council Grant No. 5556118 to Joseph R. Royce. In addition, we wish to acknowledge the general assistance provided by Dr. Samuel Messick and Educational Testing Service during Royce's tenure as a visiting scholar at ETS in 1973. And, in particular, we acknowledge the extensive literature reviews conducted by Irene Kostin in her capacity as research assistant to J. R. Royce while he was in residence at ETS. We would also like to acknowledge helpful comments by reviewers of this manuscript.

Reprint requests should be sent to J. R. Royce, Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9, Canada.


This paper is focused on the structural aspects of a multidimensional, system-dynamics model of stylistic processing. Styles are distinguished as cognitive, affective, and cognitive-affective constructs, depending on their association with either cognitive abilities, affective traits, or both. A hierarchy of styles is proposed in which three general styles described as rational, empirical, and metaphoric are indicated as higher-order constructs which subsume three style subhierarchies and are conceptually linked to similar hierarchies of cognitive abilities and affective traits.