. Now at the Asian Counseling and Referral Service, Seattle, Washington.
Nonverbal concomitants of enacted emotional intensity and positivity: Visual and vocal behavior1
Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
Journal of Personality
Volume 49, Issue 3, pages 271–283, September 1981
How to Cite
Kimble, C. E., Forte, R. A. and Yoshikawa, J. C. (1981), Nonverbal concomitants of enacted emotional intensity and positivity: Visual and vocal behavior. Journal of Personality, 49: 271–283. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1981.tb00936.x
. This research was supported by a University of Dayton Research Council grant-in-aid to Charles E. Kimble. We would like to thank Richard Hazen and Joe Farren for the use of and help with the graphic level recorder, David Biers for statistical advice, Steve Ledva for serving as experimental assistant, and Vince Blankenship and Walt Koch for serving as blind raters. Requests for reprints should be sent to Charles E. Kimble, Department of Psychology, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469.
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2006
- Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
- Manuscript received June 10, 1980; revised March 20, 1981
This study focused on how emotional expressions are implied through visual and vocal behaviors. The roles of proportion gaze, glance duration, and vocal loudness in expressing emotional positivity and intensity were examined. Emotional positivity, emotional intensity, and target of the communication were manipulated in a mixed design. Forty-eight female subjects performed a liking or an anger message to a man and to a camera with strong and weak intensity. Videotaped responses were analyzed. Strong emotional intensity conditions evoked more direct gaze regardless of the message positivity or the target of the emotional expression. Longer glances and louder speech were associated with only intense negative emotional expression regardless of the target of the expression. The proportion gaze data support the view that eye contact serves as an intensifier of affective expression. Methodological considerations and questions about generalizability are discussed.