The authors would like to thank Stephen West and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on an earlier version of this paper. Reprint requests should be addressed to Victor A. Battistich, Child Development Project, 130 Ryan Court, Suite 210, San Ramon, CA 94583.
Gender differences in autonomous and social achievement orientations
Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
Journal of Personality
Volume 50, Issue 1, pages 98–114, March 1982
How to Cite
Battistich, V. A., Thompson, E. G., Mann, I. T. and Perlmutter, L. (1982), Gender differences in autonomous and social achievement orientations. Journal of Personality, 50: 98–114. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1982.tb00748.x
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2006
- Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
- Manuscript received January 12, 1981; revised September 15, 1981
This research examined gender differences in orientations toward autonomous and social achievement. Three independent samples of subjects (total N= 359 males and 574 females) completed measures of achievement orientation (including Strumpfer's  Autonomous Achievement Values and Social Achievement Values scales) and relevant cognitive, affective, and behavioral variables. Correlational and factor analyses clearly identified distinct autonomous and social achievement factors for both men and women in each of the samples. Examination of the correlates of achievement orientation indicated that whereas an autonomous achievement orientation is similarly expressed in males and females, there are considerable sex differences in the expression of an orientation toward social achievement. In particular, a social achievement orientation was associated with concerns over social approval and responsiveness to social influence among males, but was generally unrelated to these factors among females. Findings are discussed in terms of several recent hypotheses concerning the effects of sex role norms on the development and expression of achievement needs in men and women.