Support for this study was provided by a generous grant from the Spencer Foundation. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Susan Roosenraad in conducting the study, and of Martha Robinson and Allison Young in analyzing the data. Appreciation is expressed to the children and teachers of the Pine Cobble School for their cooperation, and Saul M. Kassin for his helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper.
Children's use of defense mechanisms in reaction to displeasure caused by others
Version of Record online: 28 APR 2006
Journal of Personality
Volume 51, Issue 1, pages 78–94, March 1983
How to Cite
Cramer, P. (1983), Children's use of defense mechanisms in reaction to displeasure caused by others. Journal of Personality, 51: 78–94. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1983.tb00855.x
- Issue online: 28 APR 2006
- Version of Record online: 28 APR 2006
- Manuscript received January 20, 1982; revised July 16, 1982.
Two groups of children (mean ages = 7–0 and 10–1) were presented with eight video vignettes depicting unpleasant child-related situations. The child's defensive reaction was evaluated by means of an open-ended free response and by choice of one of four response alternatives: turning against the object, turning against the self, projection, and reversal. Sex- and age-related differences were predicted, and found in the younger age group: Boys chose turning against the object more often than did girls, who chose reversal more often than did boys.