The preparation of this paper was supported by Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Grant No. SSHRC S 76-0908-R1. I wish to acknowledge a heavy debt to my Research Associate, Arnold Powell, for the insight and perceptiveness he has brought to bear on many aspects of this manuscript. I particularly wish to acknowledge his contribution to the development of Figure 2. I also wish to acknowledge Graduate Research Assistant Greg Kearlsey's contribution to the section on system interactions and integrations. He provided me with an early draft of this section and suggested the concept of functional coupling.
Personality integration: A synthesis of the parts and wholes of individuality theory
Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
Journal of Personality
Volume 51, Issue 4, pages 683–706, December 1983
How to Cite
Royce, J. R. (1983), Personality integration: A synthesis of the parts and wholes of individuality theory. Journal of Personality, 51: 683–706. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1983.tb00874.x
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2006
- Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
- Manuscript received October 15, 1981; revised December 24, 1982.
Individuality theory views the total psychological system or personality as an organized complexity which is partitioned into six major systems—sensory, motor, cognition, affect, value, and style. Each of these systems is, in turn, describable in terms of its subsystems and their components. Individuality is captured via the concept of multivariate personality type, which includes both profile and temporal characteristics. Organism-environment interactions are handled via the basic system circuit. This circuit involves an information input from the environment, a norm against which inputs are compared, and outputs which feed back into the external environment. Normative match refers to the degree of alignment between a specifiable norm (i.e., a psychological construction such as a goal or a purpose) and the environmental input. We refer to norm-input matches as assimilation. In the case of mismatches, accommodation is required via feedback mechanisms. Whereas normative matching is focused on external interactions between the organism and the environment, template matching is focused on internal processes of the psychological suprasystem. Thus, template matching refers to the degree of alignment between the profile and temporal aspects of a specifiable situation and personality type. Template matching involves specifying the details of central processing—the integrative role of the style and value systems, the transformation processing of the cognitive and affective systems, and the coding role of the sensory and motor systems. Suprasystem functioning involves both internal (i.e., template matching) and external (i.e., normative matching) processing simultaneously. Thus, molar psychological constructions, such as worldview and life-style, are the products or outcomes of the integrative processing of the style-cognitive and value-affective systems respectively. When suprasystem norms are functioning assimilatively we are describing periods of personality stability. When suprasystem norms are functioning accommodatively we are describing periods of personality change. The most encompassing indicator of personality integration at a given moment