The authors would like to thank John Levine, Hazel Markus, Maureen McHugh, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of the manuscript.
Self-expectancies and reactions to evaluations of personal performance
Version of Record online: 28 APR 2006
Journal of Personality
Volume 52, Issue 2, pages 156–176, June 1984
How to Cite
Moreland, R. L. and Sweeney, P. D. (1984), Self-expectancies and reactions to evaluations of personal performance. Journal of Personality, 52: 156–176. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1984.tb00350.x
- Issue online: 28 APR 2006
- Version of Record online: 28 APR 2006
- Manuscript received May 11, 1983; revised October 7, 1983
A field study tested whether college students' reactions to evaluations of their performance on an important examination were based primarily on self-consistency or self-enhancement needs. All students (N= 166) completed two questionnaires, one a week before and the other a week after the examination. The first questionnaire measured general self-expectancies (self-esteem), as well as expectancies specific to the upcoming examination. The second questionnaire measured six separate phases of the students' reactions to their performance evaluations (cf. Shrauger, 1975), each phase being primarily cognitive or affective in nature. The results showed a strong general preference for positive rather than negative performance evaluations among the students, regardless of their self-expectancies. Self-enhancement effects emerged more clearly than did self-consistency effects, and most effects of both types tended to involve general rather than specific self-expectancies. Finally, there was some support for Shrauger's claim that cognitive reactions to performance evaluations are influenced by self-consistency needs, whereas affective reactions are influenced by self-enhancement needs.