Sex differences in proneness to depression and paranoia are seen as reflecting caricatures of women s and men's stereotypical role in a male-dominated, exploitative society Following its major hypothesis that mental illness arises out of failures in the sociability that is inherent in our species, the paper discusses some of the evidence for sex differences in sociability, and some evidence from studies of sex differences in field dependence which, taken together, suggest a sex difference in proneness to shame and guilt This sex difference in ‘superego” style is a mediating factor in proneness to depression and paranoia