Previous research on the correlates of power motivation in women and men had shown no gender differences, when the presence of younger siblings (reflecting responsibility training) was used as a moderator variable This study reports development of an empirically derived direct TAT measure of responsibility as a moderator variable for the power motive The new measure includes mention of legal or moral standards, obligation concern about others, concern about consequences, and self-judgment It is related to perceived parental expectations concerning responsibility Among women and men high in responsibility, power motivation predicts responsible social power actions, but among women and men low in responsibility, power motivation predicts a variety of profligate, impulsive actions Responsibility then, rather than gender, appears to determine the ways in which the power motive is expressed