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ABSTRACT The construct validity of assertion was analyzed in three independent correlational studies The convergence of self-reported, laboratory roleplayed, self-observed, and peer-rated measures was examined, as well as their relationship to Norman's peer-rated five personality factors of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and culture Twenty-three and 29 undergraduate students participated in Studies 1 and 2, respectively In general, results showed poor convergence among assertiveness measures even when increasing the representativeness and reliability of the role-played laboratory and self-observed measures, as in Study 2 In Study 3, the role-playing test was abandoned and 45 subjects served as peers for one another The results of Study 3 supported the prediction that assertiveness measures showed at least moderate convergence, in addition there were significant relationships between assertiveness and extraversion and between peer-rated assertiveness and agreeableness, conscientiousness, and culture The relative contribution of each assessment procedure to the construct validity of assertion is discussed