ABSTRACT In this article, an evolutionary perspective is applied to individual differences Among the issues discussed are (a) the seminal contributions of Francis Galton and the subsequent ideological reaction, (b) the distalproximal continuum for understanding levels of explanation in social behavior, (c) consistent patterns of group differences in behavior (age, sex, social class, and race), (d) the heritability of personality and the role epigenetic rules play in guiding development in one direction over alternatives, (e) the genetic similarity theory perspective on friendship and mate choice, and (f) the view that personality is part of an r-K reproductive strategy involving a compensatory exchange between the production of gametes and parental care It is suggested in conclusion that personality traits be considered aspects of a coordinated life cycle deeply embedded in evolutionary history