ABSTRACT Personality changes over time can be analyzed by the same twin and adoption methods used to analyze the genetic and environmental influences on a trait at a given time Composite parent rating measures of Extraversion, Socialization, and Stability made on two occasions approximately 10 years apart on 229 adopted and 83 nonadopted children from the Texas Adoption Project were used to illustrate this point in two ways The first was based on correlations among family members, from which it appeared that by far the chief source of individual change was neither the genes nor shared family environment, but individual experience (and/or measurement error) The second was via a path-analytic approach to changes in the means of adopted and natural children, from which it appeared that, nonetheless, the children were tending to change on the average in the direction of their genetic parents' personalities