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ABSTRACT We report a genetic and environmental analysis of California Psychological Inventory (CPI) scale scores gathered on a sample of 45 sets of monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA) and 26 sets of dizygotic twins reared apart (DZA) Analysis of twin intraclass correlations and the results of models fit to the twin data demonstrate that the heritability of most scales and five factors of the CPI is about 50 When compared to results from studies of adult MZ and DZ twins reared together few of the scales demonstrate any common family environmental influence Placement coefficients on the Family Environment Scale (FES) can explain only a minor portion of the correlations for twins reared apart The influence of specific rearing environmental factors on adult personality was evaluated by analyzing the relationship between the FES and the CPI in this adoptee sample One FES factor (Cohesion vs Conflict) does correlate substantially with the CPI factor of Consensuality and may account for up to 24% of the variance in that factor, but the retrospectively gathered