The authors would like to thank Jean Nakamura, Ulrich Schiefele, Sam Whalen, the editors, and two anonymous reviewers for their comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. We would also like to thank Tony Tarn for his help in statistical analysis and his comments on the manuscript. The research reported in this article was supported by a grant given to the second author by the Spencer Foundation.
Motivation and Academic Achievement: The Effects of Personality Traits and the duality of Experience
Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
Journal of Personality
Volume 59, Issue 3, pages 539–574, September 1991
How to Cite
Wong, M. M. and Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1991), Motivation and Academic Achievement: The Effects of Personality Traits and the duality of Experience. Journal of Personality, 59: 539–574. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1991.tb00259.x
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2006
- Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
- Manuscript received January 30, 1990; revised September 30, 1990
ABSTRACT The present study examined the relationship of personality, experience while studying, and academic performance. One hundred and seventy talented high-school students (68 males, 102 females) completed the Personality Research Form (PRF) and recorded their experience via the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). The results showed that controlling for ability, work orientation, a PRF factor, was a better predictor of grade than experience. However, an experiential variable, intrinsic motivation while studying, was related to the difficulty level of courses students took over the 4 years in high school. The results supported the notion that there are two kinds of motivation in scholastic achievement, one directed toward long-term goals, the other directed toward ongoing experience.