We would like to thank Kenneth Craik, George DeVos, Harrison Gough, and Leonard Horowitz for their helpful commentary in developing this article. Copies of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory will be sent without charge to anyone who desires to use it for research purposes.
Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Defensive Self-Enhancement
Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
Journal of Personality
Volume 59, Issue 1, pages 19–38, March 1991
How to Cite
Raskin, R., Novacek, J. and Hogan, R. (1991), Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Defensive Self-Enhancement. Journal of Personality, 59: 19–38. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1991.tb00766.x
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2006
- Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
- Manuscript received September 18, 1989; revised July 12, 1990.
ABSTRACT This study investigates the relationships among narcissism, self-esteem, and defensive self-enhancement in samples of 60, 84, 300, and 57 subjects. Using various self-report indices of these constructs we found that (a) defensive self-enhancement is composed of two orthogonal components: grandiosity and social desirability; (b) grandiosity and social desirability independently predict self-esteem and may represent distinct confounds in the measurement of self-esteem, (c) narcissism is positively related to grandiose self-enhancement (as opposed to social desirability), (d) narcissism is positively associated with both defensive and nondefensive self-esteem, and (e) authority, self-sufficiency, and vanity are the narcissistic elements most indicative of nondefensive self-esteem. The results are consistent with several theories that postulate a two-component model for self-esteem regulation and personality development.