An Introduction to the Five-Factor Model and Its Applications

Authors


  • We are grateful to Michael Bond, Peter Borkenau, David Buss, Paul Costa, Donald Fiske, Lew Goldberg, Robert Hogan, and Warren Norman for comments on this manuscript, and to Stephen G. West and the associate editors of this journal for their advice and assistance on this special issue.

  • This article lies in the public domain because it was written for and funded by the federal government.

may be addressed to Robert R. McCrae, Personality, Stress, and Coping Section, Gerontology Research Center, 4940 Eastern Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21224.

Abstract

ABSTRACT The five-factor model of personality is a hierarchical organization of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Research using both natural language adjectives and theoretically based personality questionnaires supports the comprehensiveness of the model and its applicability across observers and cultures. This article summarizes the history of the model and its supporting evidence; discusses conceptions of the nature of the factors; and outlines an agenda for theorizing about the origins and operation of the factors. We argue that the model should prove useful both for individual assessment and for the elucidation of a number of topics of interest to personality psychologists.

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