We are grateful to Michael Bond, Peter Borkenau, David Buss, Paul Costa, Donald Fiske, Lew Goldberg, Robert Hogan, and Warren Norman for comments on this manuscript, and to Stephen G. West and the associate editors of this journal for their advice and assistance on this special issue.
An Introduction to the Five-Factor Model and Its Applications
Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
Journal of Personality
Volume 60, Issue 2, pages 175–215, June 1992
How to Cite
McCrae, R. R. and John, O. P. (1992), An Introduction to the Five-Factor Model and Its Applications. Journal of Personality, 60: 175–215. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.x
This article lies in the public domain because it was written for and funded by the federal government.
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2006
- Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
- Manuscript received October 1, 1990; revised May 9, 1991.
ABSTRACT The five-factor model of personality is a hierarchical organization of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Research using both natural language adjectives and theoretically based personality questionnaires supports the comprehensiveness of the model and its applicability across observers and cultures. This article summarizes the history of the model and its supporting evidence; discusses conceptions of the nature of the factors; and outlines an agenda for theorizing about the origins and operation of the factors. We argue that the model should prove useful both for individual assessment and for the elucidation of a number of topics of interest to personality psychologists.