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ABSTRACT Psychological research on morality has been based on researchers' definitions of morality or on philosophical theories. The present study examined naturally occurring conceptions of morality by using a knowledge-structure methodology borrowed from cognitive psychology. Subjects generated statements in response to a question designed to expose generic knowledge about their concept of morality. Answer frequency and conceptual clustering results suggested that a variety of diverse concepts undergirded subjects' moral thinking and revealed a person-based rather than a philosophy-based pattern for commonly held conceptions of morality. A three-dimensional scaling solution of the responses suggested that conceptions of morality were characterized by individual-social, general-specific, and absolute-relative distinctions. These findings raise questions about assumptions underlying previous theories of morality. Moreover, the present methodology offers a basis for developing a more representative account of moral thought that depends less on the beliefs of researchers.