Preparation of this article was aided in part by a grant from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD19914) to the Human Motivation Program, Department of Psychology, University of Rochester.
Psychological Needs and the Facilitation of Integrative Processes
Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
Journal of Personality
Volume 63, Issue 3, pages 397–427, September 1995
How to Cite
Ryan, R. M. (1995), Psychological Needs and the Facilitation of Integrative Processes. Journal of Personality, 63: 397–427. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1995.tb00501.x
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2006
- Article first published online: 28 APR 2006
- Manuscript received May 1994; revised December 1994.
ABSTRACT The assumption that there are innate integrative or actualizing tendencies underlying personality and social development is reexamined. Rather than viewing such processes as either nonexistent or as automatic, I argue that they are dynamic and dependent upon social-contextual supports Pertaining to basic human psychological needs. To develop this viewpoint, I conceptually link the notion of integrative tendencies to specific developmental processes, namely intrinsic motivation; internalization; and emotional integration. These processes are then shown to be facilitated by conditions that fulfill psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and forestalled within contexts that frustrate these needs. Interactions between psychological needs and contextual supports account, in part, for the domain and situational specificity of motivation, experience, and relative integration. The meaning of psychological needs (vs. wants) is directly considered, as are the relations between concepts of integration and autonomy and those of independence, individualism, efficacy, and cognitive models of “multiple selves.”