Filipino Personality Structure and the Big Five Model: A Lexical Approach


  • Portions of this article were presented at the 103rd annual convention of the American Psychological Association, New York, NY (August 1995). The research was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grant R29-MH47343. For their assistance in data collection we are grateful to Donato Bueno. Lydia Catapang, Beatriz K. Galvey, Rodeo Gatdula, Maria Lisa Laig, Rizza Ramos, Zeny Receno. Rosalee Reyes, and Rommel Veraosa, For helpful comments on an earlier version of the article, we thank Auke Tellegen and Gerard Saucier.

concerning this article should be addressed to A. Timothy Church, Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling Psychology, Cleveland Hall, Washington State University. Pullman, WA 99164-2136. E-mail may be sent to


ABSTRACT In lexically based studies, we derived Filipino personality dimensions and related them to the Big Five model. In Study 1, Filipino high-school and college students (N= 629) rated themselves on a near-comprehensive list of 861 Filipino (Tagalog) trait adjectives. In Study 2, Filipino high-school and college students (N= 1,531) rated 280 markers of dimensions identified in Study 1. Some students (n= 473) also completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Seven comparable Filipino dimensions were identified in factor analyses in the two studies. We concluded that the dimensions we labeled Concern for Others (vs. Egotism), Conscientiousness. Gregariousness, and Intellect were quite similar to Big Five Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Intellect, respectively. The Filipino Self-Assurance dimension was most similar to Big Five Neuroticism. The Filipino Temperamentalness dimension was more complex in Big Five terms, overlapping Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism. A final Filipino factor resembled a Negative Valence or Infrequency dimension. More than five factors had to be extracted to obtain Philippine dimensions resembling all of the Big Five.