Further Evidence for the Cross-Cultural Generality of the Big Seven Factor Model: Indigenous and Imported Spanish Personality Constructs


  • The authors gratefully acknowledge the comments of Catherine Clark, Auke Tellegen, Gerald Saucier, and Jeff McCrae on previous drafts of this article. We also thank Eduard Sanahuja and the psychology faculty at the Universitat Autönoma de Barcelona (specifically, Jordi Bachs, Montse Goma, Maite Martinez, and Merce Mitjavila) for allowing us access to their students.

Address correspondence to Verónica Benet-Martínez, Institute of Personality and Social Research, 4143 Tolman Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, or Niels G. Waller, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. E-mail: veronica@garnet.berkeley.edu or ngwaller@ucdavis.edu.


ABSTRACT Recent research has established the structural robustness of the Big Seven across samples and targets. In this study we analyze a diverse pool of Spanish personality terms to assess the cross-cultural and cross-language robustness of the Big Seven model. Trait terms were culled from an unabridged Spanish dictionary following the nonrestrictive selection criteria previously used by Tellegen and Waller. Self-ratings on 299 descriptors by 894 Spanish university students yielded a seven-factor solution that was clearly recognizable—with important cultural-specific differences—as the Big Seven. These indigenous dimensions were compared with factors from Spanish-translated Big Seven and Big Five questionnaires. Our results demonstrate that the Big Seven are cross-culturally and cross-linguistically robust personality dimensions that are not subsumable by the Big Five.