James E. King, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Alexander Weiss, Laboratory of Personality and Cognition, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224; Kay Farmer, Scottish Primate Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland.
A Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Analogue of Cross-National Generalization of Personality Structure: Zoological Parks and an African Sanctuary
Article first published online: 17 JAN 2005
Journal of Personality
Volume 73, Issue 2, pages 389–410, April 2005
How to Cite
King, J. E., Weiss, A. and Farmer, K. H. (2005), A Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Analogue of Cross-National Generalization of Personality Structure: Zoological Parks and an African Sanctuary. Journal of Personality, 73: 389–410. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00313.x
We would like to express our gratitude to Virginia Landau, Director of ChimpanZoo and Aliette Jamart, Director of Habitat Ecologique et Liberté des Primates (HELP). We are also indebted to staff and raters at the HELP project in the Republic of Congo and the following zoos: Cheyenne Mountain Zoo (Colorado Springs), Dallas Zoo, Fort Worth Zoological Park, Knoxville Zoological Park, Lion Country Safari (West Palm Beach), Los Angeles Zoo, Lowry Park Zoological Gardens (Tampa Bay), North Carolina Zoological Park, Oakland Zoo, Sacramento Zoo, San Francisco Zoological Gardens, Sedgewick County Zoo (Witchita), Taronga Zoo (Sydney, Australia), Sunset Zoo (Manhattan, KS), and the Tulsa Zoo. We would also like to thank R. R. McCrae for his helpful suggestions and advice.
- Issue published online: 17 JAN 2005
- Article first published online: 17 JAN 2005
Abstract Six personality factors, including five resembling the human Big Five, had previously been identified in a separate group of zoo-housed chimpanzees. Comparability of chimpanzee personality factor structure was examined in two highly contrasting habitats: zoos and a large African sanctuary. Questionnaires for the zoo chimpanzees were in English, while most for the chimpanzees in the sanctuary were in French. Differences between the two settings were sufficiently extensive to make them analogous to cross-national human personality studies. Internal consistencies for five of the six factors did not differ between the two samples. The patterns of correlations between the unit-weighted factors were also similar for the two samples. Data from these two samples were pooled and factor analyzed. The resulting factor structure was then rotated to the factor structure described in the original study of chimpanzee personality. Dominance, Extraversion, Dependability, and Agreeableness had high congruences. Emotionality and Openness did not, but the items that had the highest loadings were consistent with the factors' definitions. Finally, sex and age effects for all factors generalized across habitats.