Get access

Bicultural Identity Integration (BII): Components and Psychosocial Antecedents


  • We are grateful to Janxin Leu for her help in collecting the data for the study. Early versions of this manuscript benefited greatly from the comments provided by Fiona Lee, Ole-Kristian Setnes, Nicole Berry, Amara Brook, Chi-Ying Cheng, and Julie Garcia. We also thank three anonymous reviewers who provided very valuable comments on this work. The following individuals provided assistance with the data collection, coding, and data entry: Curt Brewer, Hiu Ying Chen, Ashley Ho, Martin Kandes, Mary Money, and Erin Weber. Finally, we thank Laura Klem for her valuable statistical assistance with the path analyses.

concerning this article can be addressed to Verónica Benet-Martínez (


Abstract The present study examines the underresearched topic of bicultural identity; specifically, we: (1) unpack the construct of Bicultural Identity Integration (BII), or the degree to which a bicultural individual perceives his/her two cultural identities as “compatible” versus “oppositional,” and (2) identify the personality (Big Five) and acculturation (acculturation stress, acculturation attitudes, bicultural competence) predictors of BII. Differences in BII, acculturation stress, and bicultural competence were measured with new instruments developed for the purposes of the study. Using a sample of Chinese American biculturals, we found that variations in BII do not define a uniform phenomenon, as commonly implied in the literature, but instead encompass two separate independent constructs: perceptions of distance (vs. overlap) and perceptions of conflict (vs. harmony) between one's two cultural identities or orientations. Results also indicated that cultural conflict and cultural distance have distinct personality, acculturation, and sociodemographic antecedents.