Abstract Models of interpersonal traits have traditionally contained two independent dimensions, one referring to dominance as the opposite of submissiveness and the other referring to agreeableness as the opposite of quarrelsomeness. These models are primarily based on psychometric analyses of the co-occurrence of interpersonal characteristics. The present article reviews literature based on event-contingent recording studies that examine whether the structure of interpersonal behavior as revealed in its everyday occurrence is consistent with this model of interpersonal traits. Evidence from studies of the effects of hierarchical social role situations, the relations between behaviors and affect, and the effects of alterations in serotonin are used to evaluate whether dominance, submissiveness, agreeableness, and quarrelsomeness are related, opposite, or independent behavioral systems. The pattern of findings suggests that agreeableness and quarrelsomeness may be part of the same behavioral system while dominance and submissiveness may have separate underlying behavioral systems.