ABSTRACT We examined the relationship of Cloninger's temperament factors—Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence—to perceived threat and stress and performance appraisals during different challenges, i.e., mental arithmetic, the reaction time task, and three public speaking tasks, among 97 young adult men and women. Temperament was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory. The results showed that, although some of the predictions made by Cloninger's model were confirmed, some were unsupported. The results revealed also some associations between temperament and cognitive appraisals that were intelligible, but not predicted by Cloninger's model. There were considerable domain specificity and gender differences in the associations found. Cloninger's temperament dimensions are related to threat, stress, and performance appraisals, thereby influencing individual's stress vulnerability, adjustment, and personal functioning.