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The Personality Construct of Hardiness, III: Relationships With Repression, Innovativeness, Authoritarianism, and Performance


concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Salvatore R. Maddi, Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, 3340 Social Ecology II, Irvine, CA 92697-7085. E-mail:


Abstract Previous research has established hardiness as a dispositional factor in preserving and enhancing performance and health despite stressful circumstances. The present four studies continue this construct-validational process by (a) introducing a shortened version of the hardiness measure and (b) testing hypotheses concerning the relationship between hardiness and repressive coping, right-wing authoritarianism, innovative behavior, and billable hours (a measure of consulting effectiveness). Results of these studies suggest the adequate reliability and validity of the Personal Views Survey III-R, which is the shortened, 18-item measure of hardiness. Further, results support the hypothesis that the relationship of hardiness is negative with repressive coping and right-wing authoritarianism and positive with innovative behavior and billable hours. Hardiness also appears unrelated to socially desirable responding.