Does Ideology Transcend Culture? A Preliminary Examination in Romania


  • The author would like to thank Andreea Bornaz, Ramona Krauss, Alexandra Gheoca, Raluca Gheorghiu, Marcel Malanca, Magda Mateescu, Danut Noaptes, Petru Spiridon, Florin Tataru, and Mariana Voiculescu for their technical assistance with this article. The author would also like to thank Andreea Bornaz, Dan Cervone, Ralph Hood, Jill O'Connor, Ramona Krauss, Gerard Saucier, Linda Skitka, Sarah Spell, and Paul Watson for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this manuscript.

concerning this article should be addressed to Stephen Krauss, 1608 East Frontier Lane, Olathe KS, 66062. E-mail:


ABSTRACT This article represents a preliminary attempt to develop a culturally universal structural model of ideology. In Study 1, an indigenous model of Romanian ideology was developed. The structural model was created by converting 245 dictionary definitions of Romanian ideological concepts into questionnaire items. Using a sample of 420 Romanians, the most replicable structure indicated four broad dimensions that appeared to roughly correspond to the four factors in Saucier's (2000) American model of ideology. Study 2 replicated the structural model and compared it with existing ideological measures. Authoritarianism and traditional religiosity were a key component of the largest factor. Communism and some aspects of social dominance orientation were key components of the second largest factor. The findings may represent the beginnings of a culturally universal structure model of ideology.