Motivation and Engagement in Music and Sport: Testing a Multidimensional Framework in Diverse Performance Settings


  • The author would like to thank Neal Peres Da Costa for his assistance in this research.

Requests for further information about this investigation can be made to Associate Professor Andrew J. Martin, Faculty of Education and Social Work, A35-Education Building, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. E-mail:


ABSTRACT The present study assessed the application of a multidimensional model of motivation and engagement (the Motivation and Engagement Wheel) and its accompanying instrumentation (the Motivation and Engagement Scale) to the music and sport domains. Participants were 463 young classical musicians (N=224) and sportspeople (N=239). In both music and sport samples, the data confirmed the good fit of the four hypothesized higher-order dimensions and their 11 first-order dimensions: adaptive cognitions (self-efficacy, valuing, mastery orientation), adaptive behaviors (planning, task management, persistence), impeding/maladaptive cognitions (uncertain control, anxiety, failure avoidance), and maladaptive behaviors (self-handicapping, disengagement). Multigroup tests of factor invariance showed that in terms of underlying motivational constructs and the composition of and relationships among these constructs, key subsamples are not substantially different. Moreover—and of particular relevance to issues around the generalizability of the framework—the factor structure for music and sport samples was predominantly invariant.