The authors would like to thank Dmitri Nesteruk for programming both studies, Sarah Wood for recruiting participants at Northern Illinois University, and Kathryn Gardner, John H. Krantz, Scott Plous, and Ulf-Dietrich Reips for allowing us to recruit via their research Web sites.
Individual Differences in Self-Enhancement and Self-Protection Strategies: An Integrative Analysis
Article first published online: 15 MAR 2010
© 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Personality
Volume 78, Issue 2, pages 781–814, April 2010
How to Cite
Hepper, E. G., Gramzow, R. H. and Sedikides, C. (2010), Individual Differences in Self-Enhancement and Self-Protection Strategies: An Integrative Analysis. Journal of Personality, 78: 781–814. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00633.x
- Issue published online: 15 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 15 MAR 2010
ABSTRACT Research has identified a large number of strategies that people use to self-enhance or self-protect. We aimed for an empirical integration of these strategies. Two studies used self-report items to assess all commonly recognized self-enhancement or self-protection strategies. In Study 1 (N=345), exploratory factor analysis identified 4 reliable factors. In Study 2 (N=416), this model was validated using confirmatory factor analysis. The factors related differentially to the key personality variables of regulatory focus, self-esteem, and narcissism. Expanding this integrative approach in the future can reveal a great deal about the structure and dynamics of self-enhancement and self-protection motivation.