The Validity and Structure of Culture-Level Personality Scores: Data From Ratings of Young Adolescents


  • The Adolescent Personality Profiles of Cultures Project collaborators include Maria E. Aguilar-Vafaie, Tarbiat Modarres University, Islamic Republic of Iran; Chang-kyu Ahn, Pusan National University, South Korea; Hyun-nie Ahn, Ewha Womans University, South Korea; Lidia Alcalay, Pontificia Universidad Catolica De Chile, Chile; Jüri Allik, University of Tartu, Estonia; Tatyana V. Avdeyeva, University of St. Thomas, USA; Marek Blatný, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic; Denis Bratko, University of Zagreb, Croatia; Marina Brunner-Sciarra, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru; Thomas R. Cain, Rutgers University, USA; Niyada Chittcharat, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand; Jarret T. Crawford, The College of New Jersey, USA; Margarida P. de Lima, University of Coimbra, Portugal; Ryan Fehr, University of Maryland, USA; Emília Ficková, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovak Republic; Sami Gülgöz, Koç University, Turkey; Martina Hřebíčková, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic; Lee Jussim, Rutgers University, USA; Waldemar Klinkosz, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland; Goran Knežević, Belgrade University, Serbia; Nora Leibovich de Figueroa, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina; Corinna E. Löckenhoff, Cornell University, USA; Thomas A. Martin, Susquehanna University, USA; Iris Marušić, Institute for Social Research, Zagreb, Croatia; Khairul Anwar Mastor, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia; Katsuharu Nakazato, Iwate Prefectural University, Japan; Florence Nansubuga, Makerere University, Uganda; Jose Porrata, San Juan, Puerto Rico; Danka Purić, Belgrade University, Serbia; Anu Realo, University of Tartu, Estonia; Norma Reátegui, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru; Jean-Pierre Rolland, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, France; Vanina Schmidt, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina; Andrzej Sekowski, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland; Jane Shakespeare-Finch, Queensland University of Technology, Australia; Yoshiko Shimonaka, Bunkyo Gakuin University, Japan; Franco Simonetti, Pontificia Universidad Catolica De Chile, Chile; Jerzy Siuta, Jagiellonian University, Poland; Barbara Szmigielska, Jagiellonian University, Poland; Vitanya Vanno, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand; Lei Wang, Peking University, People's Republic of China; Michelle Yik, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong.
    Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, Jr., receive royalties from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute on Aging. The Czech contribution was supported by grant 406/07/1561 from the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic and is related to research plan AV0Z0250504 of the Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The authors are indebted to the following persons for their help with the data collection: Ana Butković, Sylvie Kouřilová, Valery E. Oryol, Ivan G. Senin, Vera V. Onufrieva, A. Maglio, I. Injoque Ricle, G. Blum, A. Calero, L. Cuenya, V. Pedrón, M. J. Torres Costa, D. Vion, Hamira Alavi, Kristina Burgetova, Shuo Chen, Irene Lee, Cindy Lo, and Javier Paredes.

concerning this article should be addressed to Robert R. McCrae, 809 Evesham Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21212. E-mail:


ABSTRACT We examined properties of culture-level personality traits in ratings of targets (N=5,109) ages 12 to 17 in 24 cultures. Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to national character stereotypes. Trait profiles also showed cross-study agreement within most cultures, 8 of which had not previously been studied. Multidimensional scaling showed that Western and non-Western cultures clustered along a dimension related to Extraversion. A culture-level factor analysis replicated earlier findings of a broad Extraversion factor but generally resembled the factor structure found in individuals. Continued analysis of aggregate personality scores is warranted.