ABSTRACT The present research examined (a) the relations among various affective-cognitive vulnerabilities to psychopathology, (b) the relations between vulnerabilities and dispositional traits, and (c) the mediating role of vulnerabilities between dispositional traits and psychopathological symptoms. Self-report questionnaires were administered to two independent samples in Study 1 (total N=274), whereas a longitudinal experience-sampling method was employed in Study 2 (N=100). All samples consisted of college students. Results suggested that affective-cognitive vulnerabilities showed a pattern of intercorrelations consistent with a 2-factor model representing general vulnerability to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, respectively. The vulnerabilities also revealed common and unique aspects when mapped onto the trait structure represented by the Five-Factor Model. Most important, affective-cognitive vulnerabilities were found to constitute proximal-specific mechanisms that mediated between distal-broad dispositional vulnerabilities, such as Neuroticism, and different psychopathological symptoms. Our data support a model of personality-psychopathology relations that benefits from an integration of both the dispositional trait and social-cognitive approaches.