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Five-Factor Model Personality Disorder Prototypes: A Review of Their Development, Validity, and Comparison to Alternative Approaches


Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Joshua D. Miller, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3013. Email:


In this article, the development of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality disorder (PD) prototypes for the assessment of DSM-IV PDs are reviewed, as well as subsequent procedures for scoring individuals’ FFM data with regard to these PD prototypes, including similarity scores and simple additive counts that are based on a quantitative prototype matching methodology. Both techniques, which result in very strongly correlated scores, demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity, and provide clinically useful information with regard to various forms of functioning. The techniques described here for use with FFM data are quite different from the prototype matching methods used elsewhere.