Figure S1 The hrf1 transformation unit pBMH9 constructed in the vector pBI121, and enzyme digestion of the plant expression plasmid pBMH9. (a) Schematic representation of transformation plasmid pBMH9. NosP, promoter of gene encoding nopaline synthetase at the 5′-termination region of T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens; nptII, report gene from Kanr eubacteria; CaMV 35S, cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter; hrf1, harpin protein-encoding gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae; gusA, Escherichia coli &bgr;-glucuronidase gene (selection marker gene); nosT, 3′-termination region from Agrobacterium nopaline synthetase gene. (b) Digestion of plant expression plasmid pBMH9: 1, pBMH9 (XbaI-BamHI); 2, marker (DL-2000).

Figure S2 Field design of transgenic NJH12 (T3 and T5) and untransformed R109 plants for Magnaporthe grisea resistance evaluation: ×, untransformed control R109; *, transgenic rice (NJH12); +, disease-inducing plants (cultivar Shanyou 63). Each symbol represents a single plant. Disease-inducing plants were seeded 2 weeks prior to the test plants, inoculated with M. grisea-infested rice residues 2 weeks after seed germination in a glasshouse, and transplanted into field plots together with the test plants. Disease-inducing plants were used to promote disease severity, and the ratio of inducing to test plants was 1 : 10.

Table S1 Primers and estimated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product sizes of the hrf1, defence- and signal transduction-related genes used in this study

Table S2 Time course for the production of transformed rice, and laboratory and field evaluation of Magnaporthe grisea resistance

Table S3 Major Magnaporthe grisea races and their distribution in China. Eight races of M. grisea, labelled as ZA to ZH, have been identified in China on the basis of their differential virulence on seven rice cultivars. The ZA race is unstable (M. Shao, pers. observ.; Y.J. Zhou, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China, pers. commun.) and the ZH race does not cause significant disease on rice. The ZG race dominates in the ‘low reaches’ (including Nanjing, Jiangsu Province and Qianshan County, Anhui Province), ZC and ZB races in the ‘middle reaches’ (including Hunan Province) and the ZB race in the ‘upper reaches’ (including Sichuan Province) of the Yangtze River (Figure 2) (National Coordinating Research Team on Rice Blast, 1980). Isolates of the ZD, ZE and ZF races contribute a minor component of the natural M. grisea population in the regions along the Yangtze River, but are dominant in northern and north-east China (Jin and Chai, 1990). From the 1970s to the late 1980s, the ZB race increased significantly in the regions along the Yangtze River and in southern China, replacing the ZG race as the dominant race in some areas (Jin and Chai, 1990). The two field sites in Anhou County and Pujiang County used in our experiments have been designated official locations for evaluating the resistance in rice cultivars and breeding lines across China over the last 15 years. All the major M. grisea races identified in China exist in the natural populations

Table S4 Quantitative criteria for measuring leaf and panicle blast

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