• Open Access

Interlinking showy traits: co-engineering of scent and colour biosynthesis in flowers

Authors

  • Michal Moyal Ben Zvi,

    1. The Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
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  • Florence Negre-Zakharov,

    1. Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
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    • Present address: Department of Plant Sciences, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

  • Tania Masci,

    1. The Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
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  • Marianna Ovadis,

    1. The Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
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  • Elena Shklarman,

    1. The Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
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  • Hagit Ben-Meir,

    1. The Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
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  • Tzvi Tzfira,

    1. Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
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  • Natalia Dudareva,

    1. Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
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  • Alexander Vainstein

    Corresponding author
    1. The Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
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* Correspondence (fax 972-8-9489091; e-mail vain@agri.huji.ac.il)

Summary

The phenylpropanoid pathway gives rise to metabolites that determine floral colour and fragrance. These metabolites are one of the main means used by plants to attract pollinators, thereby ensuring plant survival. A lack of knowledge about factors regulating scent production has prevented the successful enhancement of volatile phenylpropanoid production in flowers. In this study, the Production of Anthocyanin Pigment1 (Pap1) Myb transcription factor from Arabidopsis thaliana, known to regulate the production of non-volatile phenylpropanoids, including anthocyanins, was stably introduced into Petunia hybrida. In addition to an increase in pigmentation, Pap1-transgenic petunia flowers demonstrated an increase of up to tenfold in the production of volatile phenylpropanoid/benzenoid compounds. The dramatic increase in volatile production corresponded to the native nocturnal rhythms of volatile production in petunia. The application of phenylalanine to Pap1-transgenic flowers led to an increase in the otherwise negligible levels of volatiles emitted during the day to nocturnal levels. On the basis of gene expression profiling and the levels of pathway intermediates, it is proposed that both increased metabolic flux and transcriptional activation of scent and colour genes underlie the enhancement of petunia flower colour and scent production by Pap1. The co-ordinated regulation of metabolic steps within or between pathways involved in vital plant functions, as shown here for two showy traits determining plant–pollinator interactions, provides a clear advantage for plant survival. The use of a regulatory factor that activates scent production creates a new biotechnological strategy for the metabolic architecture of fragrance, leading to the creation of novel genetic variability for breeding purposes.

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