Current address: Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Giannini Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
An intellectual property sharing initiative in agricultural biotechnology: development of broadly accessible technologies for plant transformation
Article first published online: 6 JAN 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Plant Biotechnology Journal
Volume 10, Issue 5, pages 501–510, June 2012
How to Cite
Chi-Ham, C. L., Boettiger, S., Figueroa-Balderas, R., Bird, S., Geoola, J. N., Zamora, P., Alandete-Saez, M. and Bennett, A. B. (2012), An intellectual property sharing initiative in agricultural biotechnology: development of broadly accessible technologies for plant transformation. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 10: 501–510. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2011.00674.x
- Issue published online: 1 MAY 2012
- Article first published online: 6 JAN 2012
- Received 23 May 2011; revised 10 November 2011; accepted 18 November 2011.
- plant transformation;
- translational research
The Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA) was founded in 2004 by the Rockefeller Foundation in response to concerns that public investments in agricultural biotechnology benefiting developing countries were facing delays, high transaction costs and lack of access to important technologies due to intellectual property right (IPR) issues. From its inception, PIPRA has worked broadly to support a wide range of research in the public sector, in specialty and minor acreage crops as well as crops important to food security in developing countries. In this paper, we review PIPRA’s work, discussing the failures, successes, and lessons learned during its years of operation. To address public sector’s limited freedom-to-operate, or legal access to third-party rights, in the area of plant transformation, we describe PIPRA’s patent ‘pool’ approach to develop open-access technologies for plant transformation which consolidate patent and tangible property rights in marker-free vector systems. The plant transformation system has been licensed and deployed for both commercial and humanitarian applications in the United States (US) and Africa, respectively.