I would like to thank Garry Rodan, Kanishka Jayasuriya, Teresita del Rosario, Shahar Hameiri and two anonymous reviewers for their comments on earlier versions of this article. Any errors or omissions are of course my own.
‘Social Development’ as Neoliberal Trojan Horse: The World Bank and the Kecamatan Development Program in Indonesia
Article first published online: 4 AUG 2009
© Institute of Social Studies 2009
Development and Change
Volume 40, Issue 3, pages 447–466, May 2009
How to Cite
Carroll, T. (2009), ‘Social Development’ as Neoliberal Trojan Horse: The World Bank and the Kecamatan Development Program in Indonesia. Development and Change, 40: 447–466. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2009.01561.x
- Issue published online: 4 AUG 2009
- Article first published online: 4 AUG 2009
This article seeks to reconceptualize the post-Washington consensus (PWC) by focusing not simply upon the institutional structures and ideology promoted by it, but the manner in which these are promoted on the ground. The aim is to reveal a central distinction between the Washington consensus and the PWC that has been somewhat neglected: their diverging approaches to implementation. The author focuses on the World Bank-funded Kecamatan Development Program (KDP) in Indonesia, a project that is viewed by some as being somewhat unorthodox. He argues that in addition to its promotion of the latest round of institutional reforms, what is really different about KDP, compared with older approaches to market-led development typical of the Washington consensus, is the manner in which it delivers its mix of neoliberalism. What is radical about a programme like KDP is that it constitutes a new Trojan horse for embedding market-centred norms and practices.1 In general, this is demonstrative of a key difference between the Washington consensus and the PWC that has been undervalued in many analyses of the dominant development paradigm: the methods used to embed and sustain liberal markets.