Climate-Change Mitigation Revisited: Low-Carbon Energy Transitions for China and India


  • The author is grateful to René Benders, Henk Moll and Ton Schoot-Uiterkamp for valuable comments and support concerning this research, the Ubbo-Emmius Fund at the University of Groningen for funding the research, Wang Yu and Zhang Xiliang for contributing to the research on Beijing and Bas van Ruijven, Jeroen van der Sluijs, Bert de Vries and Detlef van Vuuren for joint research on energy modelling. This article partly overlaps with Urban (2009).


China and India are heavily dependent on high-carbon fossil fuels. This article elaborates the implications of low-carbon energy transitions in the two countries, which can mitigate their serious contribution to climate change while allowing economic growth. Three modelling case studies are presented: for the Chinese power sector, the economy of Beijing and rural Indian households without access to electricity. They demonstrate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and energy use, while costs are likely to increase. Financial assistance and technology transfer will be needed to support their efforts towards a climate-friendly low-carbon economy.