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Ambassador Carlton J. H. Hayes's Wartime Diplomacy: Making Spain a Haven from Hitler



  • Abridged versions of this article were given at the U.S. Department of State at its annual Policy Evaluation Conference on June 6, 2010, in the form of a poster exhibit and as a paper at a session on “Vichy Refugees in Spain and Switzerland Compared,” with Robert Belot of the University of Montbéliard-Belfort and Vicki Caron of Cornell University, on February 11, 2001. Thanks to Vicki Caron for remarks addressed in footnote 52. The author is grateful to a grant from the Earhart Foundation for this study. The late Rudolph Binion, John Coverdale, Stanley Payne, and Isser Woloch gave their early support. Joan Maria Thomàs Andreu, Wayne H. Bowen, Harvey Chisick, James W. Cortada, William T. Coyle, John Debicki, Malcolm Kennedy, Daniel Sur, the anonymous readers of the Journal of Modern History, and especially those of Diplomatic History who offered constructive criticism of earlier drafts. I am particularly indebted to Mary Elizabeth Hayes Tucker, Carlton Hayes's daughter, for many invaluable communications, and to her son, Carlton Tucker. Jocelyn Wilks of the Columbia Rare Book Archives, Pilar Casado of the Spanish Foreign Ministry Archives, the Gelman Library of The George Washington University (especially Shmuel Ben-Gad), the University of Minnesota Archives, the National Holocaust Museum Archive, the Spanish Embassy in Washington, Colgate University, the Ministry of Culture in Madrid, the librarians and archivists of the Manuscript, Hispanic, and Jefferson Rooms of the Library of Congress (especially Everette Larson), the Leo Baeck Institute in New York, the National Archives, and the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library all offered key assistance. Axel Gillet provided able research assistance at the Croix Rouge Française. Judith Robey copyedited two drafts with skill. Padraic Kennedy, in a trip to Hyde Park, helped me understand the New Deal context of Hayes's mission. The following abbreviations are used in the footnotes:APG: Archivo de la Presidencia del Gobernamiento (Moncloa, Madrid)AMAE: Archivo de Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores (Madrid)ACRF: Archives de la Croix Rouge Française (Paris)CU/HP: Rare Book and Manuscript Room of Butler Library, Columbia University/Hayes PapersFDRL/PSF: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Library/President's Secretary FileNARA: U.S. National Archives and Records (College Park, MD)NCCJ: National Conference on Christians and Jews Archive (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN)


“U.S. Ambassador Hayes and Spain's Haven from Hitler, 1943–45”

U.S. Ambassador to Spain (1942–1945), Carlton J.H. Hayes, has been often reputed a Francoist. A look at the entire printed and archival record, however, shows Hayes to have been a tough critic of the caudillo's “fascism.” This article focusses particularly on Hayes' active role in securing the passage of some 40,000 refugees—French, Anglo-Saxons, Jews and others—across the Pyrenees mostly to North Africa. In retirment, Hayes advocated patient dilomacy, rather than ostracism or subversion of Franco Spain—the policy the U.S. eventually adopted.