“U.S. Ambassador Hayes and Spain's Haven from Hitler, 1943–45”
U.S. Ambassador to Spain (1942–1945), Carlton J.H. Hayes, has been often reputed a Francoist. A look at the entire printed and archival record, however, shows Hayes to have been a tough critic of the caudillo's “fascism.” This article focusses particularly on Hayes' active role in securing the passage of some 40,000 refugees—French, Anglo-Saxons, Jews and others—across the Pyrenees mostly to North Africa. In retirment, Hayes advocated patient dilomacy, rather than ostracism or subversion of Franco Spain—the policy the U.S. eventually adopted.