Abstract— There are some 460,000 Eritrean and Tigrean political refugees in Sudan. The numbers have increased dramatically since the mid-1970s, and as yet there are no convincing signs of peace which would allow the prospect of a speedy return home. Sudan is thus faced with one of the Third World's largest populations of long term refugees, and the capacity of the economy to absorb such numbers into its labour force is an acute and potentially violent issue. Discussion and planning has been hindered by a lack of specific information on the proportion of refugees who are of urban or rural origin and the proportion of those who might undertake skilled or unskilled employment. The following report of a census and survey of a refugee village in eastern Sudan offers some insight into the problem and suggests steps towards its solution.