SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    International Obesity Task Force data, based on population-weighted estimates from published and unpublished surveys, 1990–2002 (latest available) using IOTF-recommended cut-offs for overweight and obesity. [http://www.iotf.org].
  • 2
    Dean H, Flett B. Natural history of type 2 diabetes diagnosed in childhood: long term follow-up in young adult years. Diabetes 2002; 51: A24 (Abstract) [cited in Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 2002; 360: 473–482].
  • 3
    Strauss RS, Pollack HA. Epidemic increase in childhood overweight 1986–1998. JAMA 2001; 286: 28452848.
  • 4
    Allison DB, Matz PE, Pietrobelli A, Zannolli R, Faith MS. Genetic and environmental influences on obesity. In: Bendich A, Deckelbaum RJ (eds). Primary and Secondary Preventive Nutrition. Humana Press: Totowa, New Jersey, 1999, pp 147164.
  • 5
    Bray G. Press Statement. Finger points to corn syrup in obesity epidemic. International Congress on Obesity, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2630 August 2002[http://www.iotf.org/media/syrup.htm.
  • 6
    World Health Organization. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. WHO: Geneva, 2002.
  • 7
    Kimm SY, Obarzanek E. Childhood obesity: a new pandemic of the new millennium. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 10031007.
  • 8
    Yanovski JA, Yanovski SZ. Treatment of pediatric and adolescent obesity. JAMA 2003; 289: 18511853.
  • 9
    Fulton JE, McGuire MT, Caspersen CJ, Dietz WH. Interventions for weight loss and weight gain prevention among youth: current issues. Sports Med 2001; 31: 153165.
  • 10
    Parizkova J, Maffeis C, Poskitt EME. Management through activity. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 307326.
  • 11
    Golan M, Fainaru M, Weizman A. Role of behaviour modification in the treatment of childhood obesity with the parents as the exclusive agents of change. Int J Obes 1998; 22: 12171224.
  • 12
    Wilson GT. Behavioral treatment of childhood obesity: theoretical and practical implications. Health Psychology 1994; 13: 371372.
  • 13
    Bauer B, Maffeis C. Interdisciplinary outpatient management. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2002 pp 361376.
  • 14
    Campbell K, Waters E, O'Meara S, Kelly S, Summerbell C. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 2: CD001871.
  • 15
    Egger G, Swinburn B. An ‘ecological’ approach to the obesity pandemic. BMJ 1997; 315: 477480.
  • 16
    World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894. WHO: Geneva, 2000.
  • 17
    Kumanyika S, Jeffery RW, Morabia A, Ritenbaugh C, Antipatis VJ. Public health approaches to the prevention of obesity. Working Group of the International Obesity TaskForce. Obesity prevention: the case for action. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 425436.
  • 18
    Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 2002; 360: 473482.
  • 19
    Power C, Lake JK, Cole TJ. Measurement and long-term health risks of child and adolescent fatness. Int J Obes 1997; 21: 507526.
  • 20
    Goran MI. Measurement issues related to studies of childhood obesity: assessment of body composition, body fat distribution, physical activity, and food intake. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 505518.
  • 21
    Goran MI, Driscoll P, Johnson R, Nagy TR, Hunter G. Cross-calibration of body-composition techniques against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in young children. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63: 299305.
  • 22
    Goran MI, Gower BA, Treuth M, Nagy TR. Prediction of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in healthy pre-pubertal children. Int J Obes 1998; 22: 549558.
  • 23
    Wells JCK. A critique of the expression of paediatric body composition data. Arch Dis Child 2001; 85: 6772.
  • 24
    Wabitsch M, Braun U, Heinze E, Muche R, Mayer H, Teller W, Fusch C. Body composition in 5–18-year-old obese children and adolescents before and after weight reduction as assessed by deuterium dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 64: 16.
  • 25
    Fields DA, Goran MI, McCrory MA. Body-composition assessment via air-displacement plethysmography in adults and children: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 453467.
  • 26
    Whitehead RG, Paul AA. Growth charts and the assessment of infant feeding practices in the western world and in developing countries. Early Hum Dev 1984; 9: 187207.
  • 27
    Cole TJ, Paul AA, Whitehead RG. Weight reference charts for British long-term breastfed infants. Acta Paediatr 2002; 91: 12961300.
  • 28
    World Health Organization Working Group on the Growth Reference Protocol and Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility. Growth patterns of breastfed infants in seven countries. Acta Paediatr 2000; 89: 215222.
  • 29
    Cole T, Rolland-Cachera MF. Measurement and definition. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002; pp 327.
  • 30
    Deurenberg-Yap M, Chew SK, Deurenberg P. Elevated body fat percentage and cardiovascular risks at low body mass index levels among Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians. Obes Rev 2002; 3: 209215.
  • 31
    Lazarus R, Baur L, Webb K, Blyth F. Body Mass Index in screening for adiposity in children and adolescents: systematic evaluation using receiver operating characteristic curves. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63: 500506.
  • 32
    Sardinha LB, Going SB, Teixeira PJ, Lohman TG. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm girth for obesity screening in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 10901095.
  • 33
    Himes JH, Dietz WH. Guidelines for overweight in adolescent preventative services: recommendations from an expert committee. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59: 307316.
  • 34
    Pietrobelli A, Faith MS, Allison DB, Gallagher D, Chiumello G, Heymsfield SB. Body Mass Index as a measure of adiposity among children and adolescents: a validation study. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 204210.
  • 35
    Wang J, Thornton JC, Russell M, Burastero S, Heymsfield S, Pierson RN Jr. Asians have lower body mass index (BMI) but higher percent body fat than do whites: comparisons of anthropometric measurements. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60: 2328.
  • 36
    Ross R, Fortier L, Hudson R. Separate associations between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution, insulin and glucose levels in obese women. Diabetes Care 1996; 19: 14041411.
  • 37
    Freedman SE, Serdula MK, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of circumferences and skinfolds to levels of lipids and insulin: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 308317.
  • 38
    Taylor RW, Jones IE, Williams SM, Goulding A. Evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and the conicity index as screening tools for high trunk fat mass, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 490495.
  • 39
    Goran MI, Gower BA. Relation between visceral fat and disease risk in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70 (Suppl.): 149S156S.
  • 40
    Yajnik CS. Fetal origins of adult disease: where do we stand? Int J Diab Dev Countries 2001; 21: 4250.
  • 41
    Franklin MF. Comparison of weight and height relations in boys from 4 countries. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70 (Suppl.): 157S162S.
  • 42
    World Health Organization. Physical Status: the Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Technical Report Series no. 854. WHO: Geneva, 1995.
  • 43
    McCarthy HD, Jarrett KV, Crawley HF. The development of waist circumference percentiles in British children aged 5.0–16.9 y. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55: 902907.
  • 44
    Bellizzi MC, Dietz WH. Workshop on childhood obesity: summary of the discussion. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70 (Suppl.): 173S175S.
  • 45
    Must A, Dallal GE, Dietz WH. Reference data for obesity: 85th and 95th percentiles of body mass index (wt/ht2) and triceps skinfold thickness. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 839846.
  • 46
    Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, Flegal KM, Guo SS, Wei R, Mei Z, Curtin LR, Roche AF, Johnson CL. CDC Growth Charts: United States Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, no. 314. National Center for Health Statistics: Atlanta, 2000.
  • 47
    Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000; 320: 12401243.
  • 48
    Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 869873.
  • 49
    Yajnik CS. The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adipocity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obes Rev 2002; 3: 217224.
  • 50
    Chinn S, Hughes JM, Rona RJ. Trends in growth and obesity in ethnic groups in Britain. Arch Dis Child 1998; 78: 513517.
  • 51
    Whincup PH, Gilg JA, Papacosta O, Seymour C, Miller GJ, Alberti KG, Cook DG. Early evidence of ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk: cross sectional comparison of British South Asian and white children. BMJ 2002; 324: 635.
  • 52
    International Diabetes Institute. The Asia-Pacific Perspective: Redefining Obesity and its Treatment. WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific with the International Association for the Study of Obesity and the International Obesity TaskForce. Health Communications Australia: Sydney, 2002.
  • 53
    Swinburn BA, Ley SJ, Plank LD. Body size and composition in Polynesians. Int J Obes 1999; 23: 11781183.
  • 54
    Bini V, Celi F, Berioli MG, Bacosi ML, Stella P, Giglio P, Tosti L, Falorni A. Body mass index in children and adolescents according to age and pubertal stage. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000; 54: 214218.
  • 55
    Taylor RW, Falorni A, Jones IE, Goulding A. Identifying adolescents with high percentage body fat: a comparison of BMI cutoffs using age and stage of pubertal development compared with BMI cutoffs using age alone. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57: 764769.
  • 56
    Flegal KM, Ogden CL, Wei R, Kuczmarski RL, Johnson CL. Prevalence of overweight in US children: comparison of US growth charts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with other reference values for body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73: 10861093.
  • 57
    Wang Y, Wang JQ. A comparison of international references for the assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in different populations. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56: 973982.
  • 58
    Chen W, Lin C-C, Peng C-T, Li C-I, Wu H-C, Chiang J, Wu J-Y, Huang P-C. Approaching healthy body mass index norms for children and adolescents from health-related physical fitness. Obes Rev 2002; 3: 225232.
  • 59
    Wang Y. Is obesity associated with early sexual maturation? A comparison of the association in American boys versus girls. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 903910.
  • 60
    Popkin BM, Richards MK, Montiero CA. Stunting is associated with overweight in children of four nations that are undergoing the nutrition transition. J Nutr 1996; 126: 30093016.
  • 61
    De Onis M, Blossner M. Prevalence and trends of overweight among preschool children in developing countries. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 10321039.
  • 62
    Martorell R, Kettel Khan L, Hughes ML, Grummer-Strawn LM. Overweight and obesity in preschool children from developing countries. Int J Obes 2000; 24: 959967.
  • 63
    Lobstein TJ, James WPT, Cole TJ. Increasing levels of excess weight among children in England. Int J Obes 2003; 27: 11361138.
  • 64
    Magarey AM, Daniels LA, Boulton TJ, Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian children and adolescents: reassessment of 1985 and 1995 data against new standard international definitions. Med J Aust 2001; 174: 561564.
  • 65
    Moreno LA, Fleta J, Sarria A, Bueno M. Prevalence and trends in childhood obesity in Zaragoza (Spain). BMJ 2001; electronic letters 2 February 2001 [http://bmj.com/cgi/eletters/322/7277/24♯12391].
  • 66
    Tremblay MS, Katzmarzyk PT, Willms JD. Temporal trends in overweight and obesity in Canada, 1981–1996. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 538543.
  • 67
    Wang Y, Monteiro C, Popkin BM. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 971977.
  • 68
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960–1994. Int J Obes 1998; 22: 3947.
  • 69
    Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999–2000. JAMA 2002; 288: 17281732.
  • 70
    Kain J, Uauy R, Vio F, Albala C. Trends in overweight and obesity prevalence in Chilean children: comparison of three definitions. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56: 200204.
  • 71
    International Obesity TaskForce with the European Childhood Obesity Group. Obesity in Europe. IOTF: Copenhagen, 2002[http://www.iotf.org/media/euobesity.pdf].
  • 72
    Lobstein TJ, Frelut M-L. Prevalence of overweight children in Europe. Obes Rev 2003; 4: 195200.
  • 73
    Perra A, Bella A, Kodra Y, Cuccia M. Nutritional status, dietary habitus, physical activity and self-perceived body image of pre-adolescents in Catalonia, Sicily, 2002. Bollettino Epidemiologico Nazionale 2002; 15: 15.
  • 74
    Krassas GE, Tzotzas T, Tsametis C, Konstantinidis T. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Thessaloniki, Greece. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001; 14 (Suppl. 5): 13191326, discussion 1365.
  • 75
    Majem LS, Barba LS, Bartrina JA, Rodrigo CP, Santana PS. Epidemiología de la obesidad infantil y juvenil en España. Resultados del estudio enKid (1998–2000). In: Majem LS, Bartrina JA (eds). Obesidad infantil y juvenil: Estudio enKid (Child and Adolescent Obesity: the Enkid Study). Masson: Barcelona, 2001; pp 81108.
  • 76
    Manios Y, Moschandreas J, Hatzis C, Kafatos A. Health and nutrition education in primary schools of Crete: changes in chronic disease risk factors following a 6-year intervention programme. Br J Nutr 2002; 88: 315324.
  • 77
    Kautiainen S, Rimpelå A, Vikat A, Virtanen SM. Secular trends in overweight and obesity among Finnish adolescents in 1977–1999. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 544552.
  • 78
    Caroli M. Data presented to the IOTF Childhood Group, European Congress on Obesity, Helsinki, 29–31 May 2003.
  • 79
    Oblacińska A, Wrocławska M, Woynarowska B. Frequency of overweight and obesity in the school-age population in Poland and health care for pupils with these disorders. Pediatria Polska 1997; 72: 241245.
  • 80
    Croatian Health Service Yearbook 1998. Hrvatski Zdravstveno-Statisti: Zagreb, 1998.
  • 81
    Bláha P, Vignerová J. Investigation of the Growth of Czech Children and Adolescents. National Institute of Public Health: Prague, 2002.
  • 82
    Ibrahim B, Sallam S, El-Tawila S, El-Gibaly O, El-Sahn F. Transitions to Adulthood: A National Survey of Egyptian Adolescents, 2nd edn. The Population Council: New York, 2000 pp 2530.
  • 83
    Savva SC, Kourides Y, Tornaritis M, Epiphaniou-Savva M, Chadjigeorgiou C, Kafatos A. Obesity in children and adolescents in Cyprus. Prevalence and predisposing factors. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 10361045.
  • 84
    Al-Nuaim AR, Bamgboye EA, Al-Herbish A. The pattern of growth and obesity in Saudi Arabian male school children. Int J Obes 1996; 20: 10001005.
  • 85
    Kotani K, Nishida M, Yamashita S, Funahashi T, Fujioka S, Tokunaga K, Ishikawa K, Tarni S, Matsuzawa Y. Two decades of annual medical examinations in Japanese obese children: do obese children grow into obese adults? Int J Obes 1997; 21: 912921.
  • 86
    Ge K. 1992 The dietary and nutritional status of Chinese population—children and adolescents. In: National Nutrition Survey. People's Medical Publishing House: Beijing, 1999.
  • 87
    Luo J, Hu FB. Time trends of obesity in pre-school children in China from 1989 to 1997. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 553558.
  • 88
    Chu NF. Prevalence and trends of obesity among school children in Taiwan-the Taipei Children Heart Study. Int J Obes 2001; 25: 170176.
  • 89
    Hong Kong Department of Health. Obesity among Hong Kong schoolchildren is rising. [http://news.sohu.com/79/98/news204679879.shtml], 2 December 2002.
  • 90
    World Bank Data Query [http://www.worldbank.org/data/dataquery.html], accessed 30 June 2003.
  • 91
    Office of World Health Reporting. Basic Indicators for all Member States. WHO: Geneva, 2000.
  • 92
    Reddy SP, Panday S, Swart D, Jinabhai CC, Amosun SL, James S, Monyeki KD, Stevens G, Morejele N, Kambaran NS, Omardien RG, Van den Borne HW. Umthenthe Uhlaba Usamila – The South African Youth Risk Assessment Survey 2002[Table 22]. South African Medical Research Council: Cape Town, 2003.
  • 93
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Zeitler P. Who is the wise man? The one who foresees consequences. Childhood obesity, new associated comorbidity and prevention. Prev Med 2000; 31: 702705.
  • 94
    Must A, Strauss RS. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Int J Obes 1999; 23: S2S11.
  • 95
    Riley DJ, Santiago T, Edelman NH. Complications of obesity–hypoventilation syndrome in childhood. Am J Dis Child 1976; 130: 671674.
  • 96
    Mallory GB, Fiser DH, Jackson R. Sleep-associated breathing disorders in morbidly obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr 1989; 115: 892897.
  • 97
    Silvestri JM, Weese-Mayer DE, Bass MT, Kenny AS, Hauptmann SA, Pearsall SM. Polysomnography in obese children with a history of sleep-associated breathing disorders. Pediatr Pulmonol 1993; 16: 124129.
  • 98
    De La Eva RC, Baur LA, Donaghue KC, Waters KA. 2002 Metabolic correlates with obstructive sleep apnea in obese subjects. J Pediatr, 140, 654659.
  • 99
    Rhodes SK, Shimoda KC, Waid LR, Mahlen P, Oexmann MJ, Collop NA, Willi SM. Neurocognitive deficits in morbidly obese children with obstructive sleep apnea. J Pediatr 1995; 127: 741744.
  • 100
    Gennuso J, Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Cerny F. The relationship between asthma and obesity in urban minority children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998; 152: 11971200.
  • 101
    Luder E, Melnik TA, Dimaio M. Association of being overweight with greater asthma symptoms in inner city black and Hispanic children. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 699703.
  • 102
    Chinn S, Rona RJ. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity in three cross sectional studies of British children, 1974–94. BMJ 2001; 322: 2426.
  • 103
    Rodriguez MA, Winkleby MA, Ahn D, Sundquist J, Kraemer HC. Identification of population subgroups of children and adolescents with high asthma prevalence: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156: 269275.
  • 104
    Figueroa-Munoz JI, Chinn S, Rona RJ. Association between obesity and asthma in 4–11 year old children in the UK. Thorax 2001; 56: 133137.
  • 105
    Stenius-Aarniala B, Poussa T, Kvarnstrom J, Gronlund EL, Ylikahri M, Mustajoki P. Immediate and long term effects of weight reduction in obese people with asthma: randomised controlled study. BMJ 2000; 320: 827832.
  • 106
    Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Caldwell SH. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: summary of an AASLD single topic conference. Hepatology 2003; 37: 12021219.
  • 107
    Kinugasa A, Tsunamoto K, Furukawa N, Sawada T, Kusunoki T, Shimada N. Fatty liver and its fibrous changes found in simple obesity of children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1984; 3: 408414.
  • 108
    Rashid M, Roberts EA. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000; 30: 4853.
  • 109
    Silverman JF, Pories WJ, Caro JF. Liver pathology in diabetes mellitus and morbid obesity: clinical, pathological and biochemical considerations. Pathol Annu 1989; 24: 275302.
  • 110
    Angulo P. Medical progress: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 12211231.
  • 111
    Marchesini G, Brizi M, Morselli-Labate AM, Bianchi G, Bugianesi E, McCullough AJ, Forlani G, Melchionda N. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with insulin resistance. Am J Med 1999; 107: 450455.
  • 112
    Frelut ML, Rasakarivony R, Cathelineau L, Navarro J. Uneven occurrence of fatty liver in morbidly obese children: Impact of weight loss. Int J Obes 1995; 22 (Suppl. 2) : 43.
  • 113
    Zaadstra BM, Seidell JC, Van Noord PA, Te Velde ER, Habbema JD, Vrieswijk B, Karbaat J. Fat and female fecundity: Prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates. BMJ 1993; 306: 484487.
  • 114
    Rogers J, Mitchell GW. The relation of obesity to menstrual disturbances. N Engl J Med 1956; 247: 5355.
  • 115
    Richards GE, Cavallo A, Meyer WJD, Prince MJ, Peters EJ, Stuart CA, Smith ER. Obesity acanthosis nigricans, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenemia: pediatric perspective and natural history. J Pediatr 1985; 107: 893897.
  • 116
    Lazar L, Kauli R, Bruchis C, Nordenberg J, Galatzer A, Pertzelan A. Early polycystic ovary-like syndrome in girls with central precocious puberty and exaggerated adrenal response. Eur J Endocrinol 1995; 133: 403406.
  • 117
    Rich-Edwards JW, Goldman MB, Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Manson JE. Adolescent body mass index and infertility caused by ovulatory disorder. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 171: 171177.
  • 118
    Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of menarcheal age to obesity in childhood and adulthood: the Bogalusa heart study. BMC Pediatr 2003; 3: 3.
  • 119
    Anderson SE, Dallal GE, Must A. Relative weight and race influence average age of menarche: results from two nationally representative surveys of US girls studied 25 years apart. Pediatrics 2003; 111: 844850.
  • 120
    Marshall L, Spiegelman D, Goldman M, Manson J, Colditz G, Barbieri R, Stampfer M, Hunter D. A prospective study of reproductive factors and oral contraceptive use in relation to the risk of uterine leiomyomata. Fertil. Steril 1998; 70: 432439.
  • 121
    Mcpherson CP, Sellers TA, Potter JD, Bostick RM, Folsom AR. Reproductive factors and risk of endometrial cancer. The Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143: 11951202.
  • 122
    Stice E, Presnell K, Bearman SK. Relation of early menarche to depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Dev Psychol 2001; 37: 608619.
  • 123
    Graber JA, Lewinsohn PM, Seeley JR, Brooks-Gunn J. Is psychopathology associated with the timing of pubertal development? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 36: 17681776.
  • 124
    Liestol K. Menarcheal age and spontaneous abortion: a causal connection? Am J Epidemiol 1980; 111: 753758.
  • 125
    American Diabetes Association. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 671680.
  • 126
    Scott CR, Smith JM, Cradock MM, Pihoker C. Characteristics of youth-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus at diagnosis. Pediatrics 1997; 100: 8491.
  • 127
    Sinha R, Fisch G, Teague B, Tamborlane WV, Banyas B, Allen K, Savoye M, Rieger V, Taksali S, Barbetta G, Sherwin RS, Caprio S. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with marked obesity. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 802810.
  • 128
    Paulsen EP, Richenderfer L, Ginsberg-Fellner F. Plasma glucose, free fatty acids, and immunoreactive insulin in sixty-six obese children. Studies in reference to a family history of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 1968; 17: 261269.
  • 129
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Dolan LM, Daniels SR, Standiford D, Khoury PR, Zeitler P. Increased incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among adolescents. J Pediatr 1996; 128: 608615.
  • 130
    Fagot-Campagna A, Pettitt DJ, Engelgau MM, Burrows NR, Geiss LS, Valdez R, Beckles GL, Saaddine J, Gregg EW, Williamson DF, Narayan KM. Type 2 diabetes among North American children and adolescents: an epidemiologic review and public health perspective. J Pediatr 2000; 136: 664672.
  • 131
    McDermott R, O'Dea K, Rowley K, Knight S, Burgess P. Beneficial impact of the homelands movement on health outcomes in central Australian aborigines. Aust N Z J Public Health 1998; 22: 653658.
  • 132
    Frelut ML. Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in obese adolescents in Europe. Data from European Childhood Obesity Group International Congress on Obesity, Sao Paulo, 30 August 2003.
  • 133
    Ehtisham S, Barrett TG, Shaw NJ. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in UK children – an emerging problem. Diabet Med 2000; 17: 867871.
  • 134
    Drake AJ, Smith A, Betts PR, Crowne EC, Shield JP. Type 2 diabetes in obese white children. Arch Dis Child 2002; 86: 207208.
  • 135
    Fagot-Campagna A, Narayan KMV, Imperatore G. Type 2 diabetes in children. BMJ 2001; 322: 377378.
  • 136
    Otani T, Yokoyama H, Higami Y, Kasahara T, Uchigata Y, Hirata Y. Age of onset and type of Japanese younger diabetics in Tokyo. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1990; 10: 241244.
  • 137
    Kitagawa T, Owada M, Urakami T, Tajima N. Epidemiology of type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Japanese children. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1994; 24 (Suppl.): S7S13.
  • 138
    Malecka-Tendera E, Molnar D. Hormonal and metabolic changes. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 189220.
  • 139
    Freedman DS, Srinivasan SR, Bereneson GS. Risk of Cardiovascular complications. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 221239.
  • 140
    Jiang X, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Relation of obesity to insulin secretion and clearance in adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes 1996; 20: 951956.
  • 141
    Schmitz KH, Jacobs DR Jr, Hong CP, Steinberger J, Moran A, Sinaiko AR. Association of physical activity with insulin sensitivity in children. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 13101316.
  • 142
    Malecka-Tendera E, Koehler B, Wiciak B, Ramos A. Impaired glucose tolerance ion obese children – a long-term prospective study. In: Ditschuneit H, Gries FA, Hauner H, Schusdziarra V, Wechsler JG (eds). Obesity in Europe 1993. John Libbey: London, 1994 pp 153158.
  • 143
    Freedman DJ, Serdula MK, Khan LK. The adult health consequences of childhood obesity. In: Chen C, Dietz WH (eds). Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Programme, v. 49. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2002 pp 6382.
  • 144
    Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Wattigney WA, Berenson GS. Adolescent overweight is associated with adult overweight and related multiple cardiovascular risk factors: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Metabolism 1996; 45: 235240.
  • 145
    Lauer RM, Lee J, Clarke WR. Factors affecting the relationship between childhood and adult cholesterol levels: the Muscatine Study. Pediatrics 1988; 82: 309318.
  • 146
    Lauer RM, Clarke WR, Beaglehole R. Level, trend, and variability of blood pressure during childhood: the Muscatine study. Circulation 1984; 69: 242249.
  • 147
    Hulman S, Kushner H, Katz S, Falkner B. Can cardiovascular risk be predicted by newborn, childhood and adolescent body size? An examination of longitudinal data in urban African Americans. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 9097.
  • 148
    Vanhala MJ, Vanhala PT, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Kumpusalo EA, Takala JK. Relative weight gain and obesity as a child predict metabolic syndrom as an adult. Int J Obes 1999; 23: 656659.
  • 149
    Vanhala M, Vanhala P, Kumpusalo E, Halonen P, Takala J. Relation between obesity from childhood to adulthood and the metabolic syndrome: population based study. BMJ 1998; 317: 319.
  • 150
    Cook S, Weitzman M, Auinger P, Nguyen M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype in adolescents: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 821827.
  • 151
    National High Blood Pressure Education Programme Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Update on the 1987 task force report on high blood pressure in children and adolescents: a working group report from the National High Blood Pressure Education Programme. Pediatrics 1996; 98: 649658.
  • 152
    Figueroa-Colon R, Franklin FA, Lee JY, Aldridge R, Alexander L. Prevalence of obesity with increased blood pressure in elementary school-aged children. South Med J 1997; 90: 806813.
  • 153
    Rames LK, Clarke WR, Connor WE, Reiter MA, Lauer RM. Normal blood pressure and the evaluation of sustained blood pressure elevation in childhood: the Muscatine study. Pediatrics 1978; 61: 245251.
  • 154
    Maffeis C, Pietrobelli A, Grezzani A, Provera S, Tato L. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children. Obes Res 2001; 9: 179187.
  • 155
    Rocchini AP. Pediatric hypertension 2001. Curr Opin Cardiol 2002; 17: 385389.
  • 156
    Coatmellec-Taglioni G, Ribiere C. Factors that influence the risk of hypertension in obese individuals. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2003; 12: 305308.
  • 157
    Kondo H, Shimomura I, Matsukawa Y, Kumada M, Takahashi M, Matsuda M, Ouchi N, Kihara S, Kawamoto T, Sumitsuji S, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y. Association of adiponectin mutation with type 2 diabetes: a candidate gene for the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes 2002; 51: 23252328.
  • 158
    Freedman DS, Burke GL, Harsha DW, Srinivasan SR, Cresanta JL, Webber LS, Berenson GS. Relationship of changes in obesity to serum lipid and lipoprotein changes in childhood and adolescence. JAMA 1985; 254: 515520.
  • 159
    Freedman DS, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 1999; 103: 11751182.
  • 160
    Bao W, Srinivasan SR, Wattigney WA, Bao W, Berenson GS. Usefulness of childhood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in predicting adult dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risks. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156: 13151320.
  • 161
    Staffieri JR. A study of social stereotype of body image in children. J Pers Soc Psychol 1967; 7: 101104.
  • 162
    Tiggemann M, Anesbury T. Negative stereotyping of obesity in children: The role of controllability beliefs. J Appl Soc Psychol 2000; 30: 197793.
  • 163
    Brylinsky JA, Moore JC. The identification of body build stereotypes in young children. J Res Pers 1994; 8: 170181.
  • 164
    Falkner NH, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Jeffery RW, Beuhring T, Resnick MD. Social educational, and psychological correlates of weight status in adolescents. Obes Res 2001; 9: 3242.
  • 165
    Bell SK, Morgan SB. Children's attitudes and behavioral intentions inward a peer presented as obese: Does a medical explanation for the obesity make a difference? J Pediatr Psychol 2000; 25: 137145.
  • 166
    Richardson SA, Hastorf AH, Goodman N, Dornsbusch SM. Cultural uniformity in reaction to physical disabilities. Am Sociol Rev 1961; 202: 241247.
  • 167
    Latner J, Stunkard A. Schoolchildren, stigma, and obesity. Obes Res 2001; 9: 94S.
  • 168
    Gortmaker SL, Must A, Perrin JM, Sobol AM, Dietz W. Social and economic consequences of overweight in adolescence and young adulthood. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 10081012.
  • 169
    Sargent JD, Blanchflower DG. Obesity and stature in adolescence and earnings in young adulthood: Analysis of a British birth cohort. Arch Pediatr Adol Med 1994; 148: 681687.
  • 170
    Karris L. Prejudice against obese renters. J Soc Psychol 1977; 101: 159160.
  • 171
    Canning H, Mayer J. Obesity: Its possible effect on college acceptance. N Engl J Med 1966; 275: 11721174.
  • 172
    Canning H, Mayer J. Obesity: An influence on high school performance? Am J Clin Nutr 1967; 20: 352354.
  • 173
    Strauss RS. Friendship nominations in normal and overweight youth. Data presented by MustA. International Congress on Obesity, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 30 August 2002.
  • 174
    Strauss RS, Pollack HA. Social marginalization of overweight children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 74652.
  • 175
    Phillips RG, Hill AJ. Fat, plain, but not friendless: Self-esteem and peer acceptance of obese pre-adolescent girls. Int J Obes 1998; 22: 287293.
  • 176
    Bagwell CL, Newcomb AF, Bukowski WM. Preadolescent friendship and peer rejection as predictors of adult adjustment. Child Dev 1998; 69: 140153.
  • 177
    French SA, Story M, Perry CL. Self-esteem and obesity in children and adolescents: a literature review. Obes Res 1995; 3: 479490.
  • 178
    Kimm SYS, Barton BA, Berhane K, Ross JW, Payne GH, Schreiber GB. Self-esteem and adiposity in black and white girls: The NHLBI growth and health study. Ann Epidemiol 1997; 7: 550560.
  • 179
    Strauss RS. Childhood obesity and self-esteem. Pediatrics 2000; 105: e15.
  • 180
    Robinson TN, Chang JY, Haydel KF, Killen JD. Overweight concerns and body dissatisfaction among third-grade children: The impacts of ethnicity and socioeconomic status. J Pediatr 2001; 138: 181187.
  • 181
    French SA, Perry CL, Leon GR, Fulkerson JA. Self-esteem and change in body mass index over 3 years in a cohort of adolescents. Obes Res 1996; 4: 2733.
  • 182
    Pesa JA, Syre TR, Jones E. Psychosocial differences associated with body weight among female adolescents: The importance of body image. J Adolesc Health 2000; 26: 330337.
  • 183
    Renman C, Engstrom I, Silfverdal SA, Aman J. Mental health and psychosocial characteristics in adolescent obesity: a population-based case-control study. Acta Paediatr 1999; 88: 9981003.
  • 184
    Braet C, Mervielde I, Vandereycken W. Psychological aspects of childhood obesity: a controlled study in a clinical and nonclinical sample. J Pediatr Psychol 1997; 22: 5971.
  • 185
    Erickson SJ, Robinson TN, Haydel KF, Killen JD. Are overweight children unhappy? Body mass index, depressive symptoms, and overweight concerns in elementary school children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000; 154: 931935.
  • 186
    Eisenberg ME, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Associations of weight-based teasing and emotional well-being among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 733738.
  • 187
    Thompson JK, Coovert MD, Richards KJ, Johnson S, Cattarin J. Development of body image, eating disturbance, and general psychological functioning in female adolescents: Covariance structure modeling and longitudinal investigations. Int J Eat Disord 1995; 18: 221236.
  • 188
    Goodman E, Whitaker RC. A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 497504.
  • 189
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, French SA, Hannan PJ, Resnick MD, Blum R. Psychosocial concerns and health-compromising behaviors among overweight and non-overweight adolescents. Obes Res 1997; 5: 237249.
  • 190
    Mustillo S, Worthman C, Erkanli A, Keeler G, Angold A, Costello EJ. Obesity and psychiatric disorder: developmental trajectories. Pediatrics 2003; 111: 851859.
  • 191
    Faith MS, Matz PE, Jorge MA. Obesity–depression associations in the population. J Psychosom Res 2002; 52: 18.
  • 192
    Friedman MA, Brownell KD. Psychological correlates of obesity: Moving to the next research generation. Psychol Bull 1995; 117: 320.
  • 193
    Richardson LP, Davis R, Poulton R, McCauley E, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Connell F. A longitudinal evaluation of adolescent depression and adult obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 739745.
  • 194
    Brewis B. Biocultural aspects of obesity in young Mexican schoolchildren. Am J Human Biol 2003; 15: 446460.
  • 195
    Hill AJ, Lissau I. Psychosocial factors. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 109127.
  • 196
    Brown TA, Cash TF, Lewis RJ. Body image disturbance in adolescent binge-purgers: a brief report of a national survey in the USA. J Child Pyschol Pschiat 1989; 30: 605613.
  • 197
    Jolliffe D. Extent of overweight among US children and adolescents from 1971 to 2000. Int J Obes 2004; 28: 49.
  • 198
    Wang G, Dietz WH. Economic burden of obesity in youths aged 6–17 years: 1979–1999. Pediatrics 2002; 109: E811.
  • 199
    Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EH, Field AE, Colditz G, Dietz WH. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 1999; 282: 15231529.
  • 200
    Field AE, Coakley EH, Must A, Spadano JL, Laird N, Dietz WH, Rimm E, Colditz GA. Impact of overweight on the risk of developing common chronic diseases during a 10-year period. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 15811586.
  • 201
    Eisenstein EL, Shaw LK, Nelson CL, Anstrom KJ, Hakim Z, Mark DB. Obesity and long-term clinical and economic outcomes in coronary artery disease patients. Obes Res 2002; 10: 8391.
  • 202
    Narbro K, Jonsson E, Larsson B, Waaler H, Wedel H, Sjostrom L. Economic consequences of sick-leave and early retirement in obese Swedish women. Int J Obes 1996; 20: 895903.
  • 203
    Segal L, McNeil H, Burns C. The Costs of Obesity: Intangible Costs. Report to IOTF Steering Group, document SG, vi-3 C. IOTF: London, 15 October 1999.
  • 204
    Schwimmer JB, Burwinkle TM, Varni JW. Health-related quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents. JAMA 2003; 289: 18131819.
  • 205
    Wabitsch M. Molecular and biological factors with emphasis on adipose tissue development. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 5068.
  • 206
    Stratz CH von. Der Körper des Kindes. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, 1902 cited in WabitschM, 2002; op cit.
  • 207
    Fomon SJ, Haschke F, Ziegler EE, Nelson SE. Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 35: 11691175.
  • 208
    Widdowson EM. Changes in body proportions and composition during growth. In: Davis JA, Dobbing J (eds). Scientific Foundations of Pediatrics. William Heineman Medical: London, 1975 pp 153163.
  • 209
    McLaren DS. A fresh look at some perinatal growth and nutritional standards. World Rev Nutr Dietetics 1987; 49: 87120.
  • 210
    Hofbauer KG. Molecular pathways to obesity. Int J Obes 2002; 26 (Suppl. 2): S18S27.
  • 211
    Wabitsch M, Hauner H, Heinze E, Teller W. The role of GH/IGF in adipocyte differentiation. Metabolsim 1995; 44 (Suppl.): 4549.
  • 212
    Waterlow JC. Protein-Energy Malnutrition, 2nd edn. Edward Arnold: London, 1992. [Cited by Rolland-CacheraM-F, BellisleF. Nutrition. In: BurniatW, ColeT, LissauI, PoskittEME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 6992.]
  • 213
    Rolland-Cachera MF. Obesity among adolescents: evidence for the importance of early nutrition. In: Johnston FE, Zemel B, Eveleth PB (eds). Human Growth in Context. Smith Gordon: London, 1999 pp 245258.
  • 214
    Parsons TJ, Power C, Logan S, Summerbell CD. Childhood predictors of adult obesity: a systematic review. Int J Obes 1999; 23 (Suppl. 8): S1S107.
  • 215
    Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Ascherio AL, Stampfer MJ. Birth weight and adult hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity in US men. Circulation 1996; 94: 32463250.
  • 216
    O'Callaghan MJ, Williams GM, Andersen MJ, Bor W, Najman JM. Prediction of obesity in children at 5 years: a cohort study. J Paediatr Child Health 1997; 33: 311316.
  • 217
    Sorensen HT, Sabroe S, Rothman KJ, Gillman M, Fischer P, Sorensen TI. Relation between weight and length at birth and body mass index in young adulthood: cohort study. BMJ 1997; 315: 1137.
  • 218
    Barker M, Robinson S, Osmond C, Barker DJ. Birth weight and body fat distribution in adolescent girls. Arch Dis Child 1997; 77: 381383.
  • 219
    Stettler N, Zemel BS, Kumanyika S, Stallings VA. Infant weight gain and childhood overweight status in a multicenter, cohort study. Pediatrics 2002; 109: 194199.
  • 220
    Curhan GC, Chertow GM, Willett WC, Spiegelman D, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ. Birth weight and adult hypertension and obesity in women. Circulation 1996; 94: 13101315.
  • 221
    Maffeis C, Micciolo R, Must A, Zaffanello M, Pinelli L. Parental and perinatal factors associated with childhood obesity in north-east Italy. Int J Obes 1994; 18: 301305.
  • 222
    Parsons TJ, Power C, Manor O. Fetal and early life growth and body mass index from birth to early adulthood in 1958 British cohort: longitudinal study. BMJ 2001; 323: 13311335.
  • 223
    Martorell R, Stein AD, Schroeder DG. Early nutrition and later adiposity. J Nutr 2001; 131: 874S880S.
  • 224
    Seidman DS, Laor A, Gale R, Stevenson DK, Danon YL. A longitudinal study of birth weight and being overweight in late adolescence. Am J Dis Child 1991; 145: 782785.
  • 225
    Fall CH, Osmond C, Barker DJ, Clark PM, Hales CN, Stirling Y, Meade TW. Fetal and infant growth and cardiovascular risk factors in women. BMJ 1995; 310: 428432.
  • 226
    Curhan GC, Chertow GM, Willett WC, Spiegelman D, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ. Birth weight and adult hypertension and obesity in women. Circulation 1996; 94: 13101315. [Cited in Martorell R et al. (2001) op cit.]
  • 227
    Power C, Jefferis BJ. Fetal environment and subsequent obesity: a study of maternal smoking. Int J Epidemiol 2002; 31: 413419.
  • 228
    Ravelli AC, Van Der M, Osmond C, Barker DJ, Bleker OP. Obesity at the age of 50 y in men and women exposed to famine prenatally. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 811816.
  • 229
    Whitaker RC, Dietz WH. Role of the prenatal environment in the development of obesity. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 768776.
  • 230
    Ong KK, Ahmed ML, Emmett PM, Preece MA, Dunger DB. Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study [published erratum appears in BMJ 2000; 320: 1244]. BMJ 2000; 320: 967971.
  • 231
    Power C, Lake JK, Cole TJ. Body mass index and height from childhood to adulthood in the 1958 British born cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66: 10941101.
  • 232
    Post GB, Kemper HC. Nutrient intake and biological maturation during adolescence. The Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study. Eur J Clin Nutr 1993; 47: 400408.
  • 233
    Forbes GB, Forbes GB. Human Body Composition. Growth, Aging, Nutrition, and Activity. Springer-Verlag: New York, 1987 pp 1350.
  • 234
    Falkner F, Tanner JM. Human Growth. A Comprehensive Treatise, 2nd edn. Plenum Press: New York, 1986.
  • 235
    Amiel SA, Caprio S, Sherwin RS, Plewe G, Haymond MW, Tamborlane WV. Insulin resistance of puberty: a defect restricted to peripheral glucose metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 72: 277282.
  • 236
    Daniels SR, Khoury PR, Morrison JA. The utility of body mass index as a measure of body fatness in children and adolescents: differences by race and gender. Pediatrics 1997; 99: 804807.
  • 237
    Biro FM, McMahon RP, Striegel-Moore R, Crawford PB, Obarzanek E, Morrison JA, Barton BA, Falkner F. Impact of timing of pubertal maturation on growth in black and white female adolescents: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. J Pediatr 2001; 138: 636643.
  • 238
    Adair LS, Gordon-Larsen P. Maturational timing and overweight prevalence in US adolescent girls. Am J Public Health 2001; 91: 642644.
  • 239
    Wang Y, Adair L. How does maturity adjustment influence the estimates of overweight prevalence in adolescents from different countries using an international reference? Int J Obes 2001; 25: 550558.
  • 240
    Dietz WH. Critical periods in childhood for the development of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59: 955959.
  • 241
    Must A, Jacques PF, Dallel GE, Bajema CJ, Dietz WH. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. New Engl J Med 1992; 327: 13501355.
  • 242
    Torún B. Energy Requirements of Children and Adolescents. Borrador No. 5, 2002. Prepared for an Expert Consulation, FAO/OMS/UNU. FAO: Rome, 2001.
  • 243
    Lake JK, Power C, Cole TJ. Child to adult body mass index in the 1958 British birth cohort: Associations with parental obesity. Arch Dis Child 1997; 77: 376381.
  • 244
    Garn SM, Bailey SM, Higgins IT. Fatness similarities in adopted pairs. Am J Clin Nutr 1976; 29: 10671068.
  • 245
    Stunkard AJ, Foch TT, Hrubec Z. A twin study of human obesity. JAMA 1986; 256: 5154.
  • 246
    Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Genetic influences on the response of body fat and fat distribution to positive and negative energy balances in human identical twins. J Nutr 1997; 127 (Suppl. 5): 943S947S.
  • 247
    Perusse L, Chagnon YC, Weisnagel J, Bouchard C. The human obesity gene map: the 1998 update. Obes Res 1999; 7: 111129.
  • 248
    Ravussin E, Valencia ME, Esparza J, Bennett PH, Schulz LO. Effects of a traditional lifestyle on obesity in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 10671074.
  • 249
    Popkin BM, Udry JR. Adolescent obesity increases significantly in second and thrid generation US immigrants: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. J Nutr 1998; 128: 701706.
  • 250
    Davison KK, Birch LL. Childhood overweight: a contextual model and recommendations for future research. Obes Rev 2001; 2: 159171.
  • 251
    Sallis JF, Patterson TL, McKenzie TL, Nader PR. Family variables and physical activity in preschool children. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1988; 9: 5761.
  • 252
    Drewnowski A, Popkin BM. The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Nutr Rev 1997; 55: 3143.
  • 253
    Florencio TM, Ferreira HS, De Franca AP, Cavalcante JC, Sawaya AL. Obesity and undernutrition in a very-low-income population in the city of Maceio, northeastern Brazil. Br J Nutr 2001; 86: 277284.
  • 254
    Popkin BM. The nutrition transition and its health implications in lower-income countries. Public Health Nutr 1998; 1: 521.
  • 255
    Holm VA, Cassidy SB, Butler MG, Hanchett JM, Greenswag LR, Whitman BY, Greenberg F. Prader–Willi syndrome: consensus diagnostic criteria. Pediatrics 1993; 91: 398402.
  • 256
    Driscoll DJ, Waters MF, Williams CA, Zori RT, Glenn CC, Avidano KM, Nicholls RD. A DNA methylation imprint, determined by the sex of the parent, distinguishes the Angelman and Prader–Willi syndromes. Genomics 1992; 13: 917924.
  • 257
    Ohta T, Gray TA, Rogan PK, Buiting K, Gabriel JM, Saitoh S, Muralidhar B, Bilienska B, Krajewska-Walasek M, Driscoll DJ, Horsthemke B, Butler MG, Nicholls RD. Imprinting-mutation mechanisms in Prader–Willi syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 1999; 64: 397413.
  • 258
    Weinstein LS, Chen M, Liu J. Gs(alpha) mutations and imprinting defects in human disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002; 968: 173197.
  • 259
    Rousseau F, Heitz D, Biancalana V, Blumenfeld S, Kretz C, Boue J, Tommerup N, Van Der Hagen C, Dehozier-Blanchet C, Croquette ME . Direct diagnosis by DNA analysis of the fragile X syndrome of mental retardation. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 16731681.
  • 260
    Katsanis N, Lupski JR, Beales PL. Exploring the molecular basis of Bardet–Biedl syndrome. Hum Mol Genet 2001; 10: 22932299.
  • 261
    Farooqi IS, Jebb SA, Langmack G, Lawrence E, Cheetham CH, Prentice AM, Hughes IA, McCamish MA, O’Rahilly S. Effects of recombinant leptin therapy in a child with congenital leptin deficiency. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 879884.
  • 262
    Clement K, Vaisse C, Lahlou N, Cabrol S, Pelloux V, Cassuto D, Gourmelen M, Dina C, Chambaz J, Lacorte JM, Basdevant A, Bougneres P, Lebouc Y, Froguel P, Guy-Grand B. A mutation in the human leptin receptor gene causes obesity and pituitary dysfunction. Nature 1998; 392: 398401.
  • 263
    Krude H, Biebermann H, Luck W, Horn R, Brabant G, Gruters A. Severe early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency and red hair pigmentation caused by POMC mutations in humans. Nat Genet 1998; 19: 155157.
  • 264
    Jackson RS, Creemers JW, Ohagi S, Raffin-Sanson ML, Sanders L, Montague CT, Hutton JC, O'Rahilly S. Obesity and impaired prohormone processing associated with mutations in the human prohormone convertase 1 gene. Nat Genet 1997; 16: 303306.
  • 265
    Farooqi IS, Yeo GS, Keogh JM, Aminian S, Jebb SA, Butler G, Cheetham T, O'Rahilly S. Dominant and recessive inheritance of morbid obesity associated with melanocortin 4 receptor deficiency. J Clin Invest 2000; 106: 271279.
  • 266
    Carrel AL, Myers SE, Whitman BY, Allen DB. Growth hormone improves body composition, fat utilization, physical strength and agility, and growth in Prader–Willi syndrome: a controlled study. J Pediatr 1999; 134: 215221.
  • 267
    Farooqi IS, Matarese G, Lord GM, Keogh JM, Lawrence E, Agwu C, Sanna V, Jebb SA, Perna F, Fontana S, Lechler RI, DePaoli AM, O'Rahilly S. Beneficial effects of leptin on obesity, T cell hyporesponsiveness, and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction of human congenital leptin deficiency. J Clin Invest 2002; 110: 10931103.
  • 268
    Grylls WK, McKenzie JE, Horwath CC, Mann JI. Lifestyle factors associated with glycaemic control and body mass index in older adults with diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57: 13861393.
  • 269
    Von Eyben FE, Mouritsen E, Holm J, Montvilas P, Dimcevski G, Suciu G, Helleberg I, Kristensen L, Von Eyben R. Intra-abdominal obesity and metabolic risk factors: a study of young adults. Int J Obes 2003; 27: 941949.
  • 270
    Bobes J, Rejas J, Garcia-Garcia M, Rico-Villademoros F, Garcia-Portilla MP, Fernandez I, Hernandez G. Weight gain in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine or haloperidol: results of the EIRE study. Schizophr Res 2003; 62: 7788.
  • 271
    Kramer JR, Loney J, Ponto LB, Roberts MA, Grossman S. Predictors of adult height and weight in boys treated with methylphenidate for childhood behavior problems. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000; 39: 517524.
  • 272
    Covar RA, Leung DY, McCormick D, Steelman J, Zeitler P, Spahn JD. Risk factors associated with glucocorticoid-induced adverse effects in children with severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 106: 651659.
  • 273
    Oeffinger KC, Mertens AC, Sklar CA, Yasui Y, Fears T, Stovall M, Vik TA, Inskip PD, Robison LL. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Obesity in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: 13591365.
  • 274
    Lustig RH, Post SR, Srivannaboon K, Rose SR, Danish RK, Burghen GA, Xiong X, Wu S, Merchant TE. Risk factors for the development of obesity in children surviving brain tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 611616.
  • 275
    Ventham JC, Reilly JJ. Childhood leukaemia: a model of pre-obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 1999; 58: 277281.
  • 276
    Nysom K, Holm K, Michaelsen KF, Hertz H, Muller J, Molgaard C. Degree of fatness after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 45914596.
  • 277
    Brussaard JH, Van Erp-Baart MA, Brants HA, Hulshof KF, Lowik MR. Nutrition and health among migrants in The Netherlands. Public Health Nutr 2001; 4: 659664.
  • 278
    Booth ML, Wake M, Armstrong T, Chey T, Hesketh K, Mathur S. The epidemiology of overweight and obesity among Australian children and adolescents, 1995–97. Aust N Z J Public Health 2001; 25: 162169.
  • 279
    Kaplowitz HJ, Wild KA, Mueller WH, Decker M, Tanner JM. Serial and parent-child changes in components of body fat distribution and fatness in children from the London Longitudinal Growth Study, ages two to eighteen years. Hum Biol 1988; 60: 739758.
  • 280
    Wang Y, Ge K, Popkin BM. Tracking of body mass index from childhood to adolescence: a 6-y follow-up study in China. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 10181024.
  • 281
    Davison KK, Birch LL. Obesigenic families: parents’ physical activity and dietary intake patterns predict girls’ risk of overweight. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 11861193.
  • 282
    Dabelea D, Hanson RL, Lindsay RS, Pettitt DJ, Imperatore G, Gabir MM, Roumain J, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Intrauterine exposure to diabetes conveys risks for type 2 diabetes and obesity: a study of discordant sibships. Diabetes 2000; 49: 22082211.
  • 283
    Silverman BL, Rizzo TA, Cho NH, Metzger BE. Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment. Diabet Care 1998; 21 (Suppl. 2): B142B149.
  • 284
    Srinivasan SR, Frontini MG, Berenson GS. Longitudinal changes in risk variables of insulin resistance syndrome from childhood to young adulthood in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Metabolism 2003; 52: 443450, discussion 451–453.
  • 285
    Toschke AM, Koletzko B, Slikker W Jr, Hermann M, Von Kries R. Childhood obesity is associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy. Eur J Pediatr 2002; 161: 445448 [Epub. 28 June 2002].
  • 286
    Von Kries R, Koletzko B, Sauerwald T, Von Mutius E, Barnert D, Grunert V, Von Voss H. Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. BMJ 1999; 319: 147150.
  • 287
    Ravelli GP, Stein ZA, Susser MW. Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy. N Engl J Med 1976; 295: 349353.
  • 288
    Strauss RS. Effects of intrauterine environment on childhood growth. Br Med Bull 1997; 53: 8195.
  • 289
    Whitaker RC, Dietz WH. Role of prenatal environment in the development of obesity. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 768776.
  • 290
    Barker DJP, Eriksson JG, Forsen T , Osmond C. Fetal origins of adult disease: strength of effects and biological basis. Int J Epidemiol 2002; 31: 12351239.
  • 291
    Bennett F, Watson-Brown C, Thame M, Wilks R, Osmond C, Hales NH, Barker D. Shortness at birth is associated with insulin resistance in pre-pubertal Jamaican children. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56: 506511.
  • 292
    Yajnik C. Interactions of perturbations of intrauterine growth and growth during childhood on the risk of adult-onset disease. Proc Nutr Soc 2000; 59: 257265.
  • 293
    UNICEF Global Database on Malnutrition, updated September 2001 [http://www.childinfo.org/eddb/malnutrition/database2.htm] accessed July 2003.
  • 294
    Sawaya AL, Dallal G, Solymos G, De Sousa MH, Ventura ML, Roberts SB, Sigulem DM. Obesity and malnutrition in a shantytown in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Obes Res 1995; 3 (Suppl. 2): 107S115S.
  • 295
    Steyn K, Bourne L, Jooste P, Fourie JM, Rossouw K, Lombard C. Anthropometric profile of a black population in the Cape Peninsula in South Africa. East Afr Med J 1998; 75: 3540.
  • 296
    Crooks DL. Child growth and nutritional status in a high-poverty community in eastern Kentucky. Am J Phys Anthropol 1999; 109: 129142.
  • 297
    Walker SP, Gaskin PS, Powell CA, Bennett FI. The effects of birth weight and post natal linear growth retardation on body mass index, fatness and fat distribution in mid and late childhood. Public Health Nutr 2002; 5: 391396.
  • 298
    Schroeder DG, Martorell R, Flores R. Infant and child growth and fatness and fat distribution in Guatemalan adults. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149: 177185.
  • 299
    Walker SP, Gaskin P, Powell CA, Bennett FI, Forrester TE, Grantham-McGregor S. The effects of birth weight and post natal linear growth retardation on blood pressure at age 11–12 years. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001; 55: 394398.
  • 300
    Branca F, Ferrari M. Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on growth: the stunting syndrome. Ann Nutr Metab 2002; 46 (Suppl. 1): 817.
  • 301
    Hoffman DJ, Sawaya AL, Coward WA, Wright A, Martins PA, De Nascimento C, Tucker KL, Roberts SB. Energy expenditure of stunted and nonstunted boys and girls living in the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 10251031.
  • 302
    Sawaya AL, Grillo LP, Verreschi I, De Silva AC, Roberts SB. Mild stunting is associated with higher susceptibility to the effects of high fat diets: studies in a shantytown population in Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Nutr 1998; 128 (Suppl. 2): 415S420S.
  • 303
    Hoffman DJ, Roberts SB, Verreschi I, Martins PA, De Nascimento C, Tucker KL, Sawaya AL. Regulation of energy intake may be impaired in nutritionally stunted children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Nutr 2000; 130: 22652270.
  • 304
    Uauy R, Kain J. The epidemiologic transition: the need to incorporate obesity prevention into nutrition programmes. Public Health Nutr 2002; 5: 223229.
  • 305
    Eriksson JG, Forsén T, Tuomilehto J, Osmond C, Barker DJP. Early adiposity rebound in childhood and risk of type 2 diabetes in adult life. Diabetologia 2003; 46: 190194.
  • 306
    Williams S, Dickson N. Early growth, menarche, and adiposity rebound. Lancet 2002; 359: 580581.
  • 307
    Dorosty AR, Emmett PM, Cowin S, Reilly JJ. Factors associated with early adiposity rebound. ALSPAC Study Team. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 11151118.
  • 308
    Whitaker RC, Pepe MS, Wright JA, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Early adiposity rebound and the risk of adult obesity. Pediatrics 1998; 101: E5.
  • 309
    Freedman DS, Kettel KL, Serdula M, Srinivasan S, Berenson G. BMI rebound, childhood height and obesity among adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes 2001; 25: 543549.
  • 310
    Freedman DS, Khan LK, Mei Z, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Relation of childhood height to obesity among adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 2002; 109: E23.
  • 311
    Hardy R, Wadsworth M, Kuh D. The influence of childhood weight and socioeconomic status on change in adult body mass index in a British national birth cohort. Int J Obes 2000; 24: 725734.
  • 312
    Popkin B, Horton S, Kim S. The Nutrition Transition and Prevention of Diet-Related Chronic Diseases in Asia and the Pacific. Asian Development Bank Nutrition and Development Series No 6. Asian Development Bank: Manila, 2001.
  • 313
    Uauy R, Albala C, Kain J. Obesity trends in Latin America: transiting from under- to overweight. J Nutr 2001; 131: 893899.
  • 314
    Lissau I, Sorensen TI. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood. Lancet 1994; 343: 324327.
  • 315
    Hood MY, Moore LL, Sundarajan-Ramamurti A, Singer M, Cupples LA, Ellison RC. Parental eating attitudes and the development of obesity in children. The Framingham Children's Study. Int J Obes 2000; 24: 13191325.
  • 316
    Agras WS, Kraemer HC, Berkowitz RI, Hammer LD. Influence of early feeding style on adiposity at 6 years of age. J Pediatr 1990; 116: 805809.
  • 317
    Wells JC, Stanley M, Laidlaw AS, Day JM, Stafford M, Davies PS. Investigation of the relationship between infant temperament and later body composition. Int J Obes 1997; 21: 400406.
  • 318
    Carey WB, Hegvik RL, McDevitt SC. Temperamental factors associated with rapid weight gain and obesity in middle childhood. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1988; 9: 194198.
  • 319
    Klesges RC, Haddock CK, Stein RJ, Klesges LM, Eck LH, Hanson CL. Relationship between psychosocial functioning and body fat in preschool children: a longitudinal investigation. J Consult Clin Psychol 1992; 60: 793796.
  • 320
    Van Lenthe FJ, Snel J, Twisk JWR, Van Mechelen W, Kemper HCG. Coping personality and the development of a central pattern of body fat from youth into young adulthood: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study. Int J Obes 1998; 22: 861868.
  • 321
    Guillaume M, Lissau I. Epidemiology. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 2849.
  • 322
    Mo-Suwan L, Geater AF. Risk factors for child obesity in a transitional society in Thailand. Int J Obes 1999; 23: 272277.
  • 323
    Teasdale TW, Sørensen TI, Stunkard AJ. Intelligence and educational level in relation to body mass index of adult males. Hum Biol 1992; 64: 99106.
  • 324
    Cavadini C, Siega-Riz AM, Popkin BM. US adolescent food intake trends from 1965 to 1996. Arch Dis Child 2000; 83: 1824.
  • 325
    Harnack LJ, Jeffery RW, Boutelle KN. Temporal trends in energy intake in the United States: an ecologic perspective. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 14781484.
  • 326
    Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman SL, Camargo CA Jr, Berkey CS, Frazier AL, Rockett HR, Field AE, Colditz GA. Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. JAMA 2001; 285: 24612467.
  • 327
    Armstrong J, Reilly JJ. Child Health Information Team. Breastfeeding and lowering the risk of childhood obesity. Lancet 2002; 359: 20032004.
  • 328
    Young TK, Martens PJ, Taback SP, Sellers EA, Dean HJ, Cheang M, Flett B. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: prenatal and early infancy risk factors among native Canadians. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156: 651655.
  • 329
    Poulton R, Williams S. Breastfeeding and risk of overweight. JAMA 2001; 286: 14491450.
  • 330
    Hediger ML, Overpeck MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Ruan WJ. Association between infant breastfeeding and overweight in young children. JAMA 2001; 285: 24532460.
  • 331
    Wadsworth M, Marshall S, Hardy R, Paul A. Breast feeding and obesity. Relation may be accounted for by social factors. BMJ 1999; 319: 1576.
  • 332
    Butte NF. The role of breastfeeding in obesity. Pediatric Clin North Am 2001; 48: 189198.
  • 333
    Bergmann KE, Bergmann RL, Von Kries R, Bohm O, Richter R, Dudenhausen JW, Wahn U. Early determinants of childhood overweight and adiposity in a birth cohort study: role of breast-feeding. Int J Obes 2003; 27: 162172.
  • 334
    Li L, Parsons TJ, Power C. Breast feeding and obesity in childhood: cross sectional study. BMJ 2003; 327: 904905.
  • 335
    Victoria CG, Barros FC, Lima RC, Horta BL, Wells J. Anthropometry and body composition of 18 year old men according to duration of breast feeding. birth cohort study from Brazil. BMJ 2003; 327: 901904.
  • 336
    Clifford TJ. Breast feeding and obesity. BMJ 2003; 327: 879880.
  • 337
    Bowman SA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB, Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 112118.
  • 338
    St-Onge MP, Keller KL, Heymsfield SB. Changes in childhood food consumption patterns: a cause for concern in light of increasing body weights. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78: 10681073.
  • 339
    Prentice AM, Jebb SA. Fast foods, energy density and obesity: a possible mechanistic link. Obes Rev 2003; 4: 187194.
  • 340
    Gregory J, Lowe S. National Diet and Nutritional Survey: Young People Aged 4–18 Years, Vol. 1: Report of the Diet and Nutrition Survey. The Stationery Office: London, 2000.
  • 341
    Maffeis C, Pinelli L, Schultz Y. Fat intake and adiposity in 8–11-year-old obese children. Int J Obes 1996; 20: 170174.
  • 342
    McGloin AF, Livingstone MBE, Greene LC, Webb SE, Gibson JMA, Jebb SA, Cole TJ, Coward WA, Wright A, Prentice AM.Energy and fat intake in obese and lean children at varying risk of obesity. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 200207.
  • 343
    Guillaume M, Lapidus L, Lambert A. Obesity and nutrition in children. The Belgian Luxembourg Child Study IV. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52: 323328.
  • 344
    Tucker LA, Seljaas GT, Hager RL. Body fat percentage of children varies according to their diet. J Am Diet Assoc 1997; 97: 981986.
  • 345
    Magarey AM, Daniels LA, Bouton TJC, Cockington RA. Does fat intake predict adiposity in healthy children and adolescents aged 2–15y? A longitudinal analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55: 471481.
  • 346
    Robertson SM, Cullen KW, Baronowski J, Baronowski T, Shaouhua H, De Moor C. Factors related to adiposity among children aged 3–7y. J Am Diet Assoc 1999; 99: 939943.
  • 347
    Maffeis C, Talamini G, Tato L. Influence of diet, physical activity and parent's obesity on children's adiposity: a four-year longitudinal study. Int J Obes 1998; 22: 758764.
  • 348
    Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Akrout M, Bellisle F. Influence of macronutrients on adiposity development: a follow-up study of nutrition and growth from 10 months to 8 years of age. Int J Obes 1995; 19: 573578.
  • 349
    Gibson SA. Associations between energy density and macronutrient composition in the diets of pre-school children: sugar vs starch. Int J Obes 2000; 24: 633638.
  • 350
    Nicklas TA, Webber LS, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Secular trends in dietary intakes and cardiovascular risk factors of 10-year-old children: The Bogalusa Heart Study (1983–1988). Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 57: 930937.
  • 351
    Prynne CJ, Paul AA, Price GM, Day KC, Hilder WS, Wadsworth ME. Food and nutrient intake of a national sample of 4-year-old children in 1950: comparison with the 1990s. Public Health Nutr 1999; 2: 537547.
  • 352
    Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 2001; 357: 505508.
  • 353
    Raben A, Vasilaras TH, Moller AC, Astrup A. Sucrose compared with artifical sweetners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 wk of supplementation in overweight subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 721729.
  • 354
    Wilson JF. Lunch eating behavior of preschool children. Effects of age, gender, and type of beverage served. Physiol Behav 2000; 70: 2733.
  • 355
    Jahns L, Siega-Riz AM, Popkin BM. The increasing prevalence of snacking among US children from 1977 to 1996. J Pediatr 2001; 138: 493498.
  • 356
    Marmonier C, Chapelot D, Louis-Sylvestre J. Metabolic and behavioural consequences of a snack consumed in a satiety state. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 854866.
  • 357
    Marmonier C, Chapelot D, Louis-Sylvestre J. Effect of macronutrient content and energy density of sncaks consumed in a satiety state on the onset of the next meal. Appetite 2000; 34: 161168.
  • 358
    Marmonier C, Chapelot D, Fantino M, Louis-Sylvestre J. Snacks consumed in a non-hungry state have poor satiating efficiency: influence of snack consumption on substrate utilization and hunger. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 518528.
  • 359
    Barkeling B, Andersson I, Lindroos AK, Birkhed D, Rossner S. Intake of sweet foods and counts of cariogenic microorganisms in obese and normal-weight women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55: 850855.
  • 360
    Johnstone AM, Shannon E, Whybrow S, Reid CA, Stubbs RJ. Altering the temporal distribution of energy intake with isoenergetically dense foods given as snacks does not affect total daily energy intake in normal-weight men. Br J Nutr 2000; 83: 714.
  • 361
    Blair AJ. When are calories most fattening? Appetite 1991; 17: 161.
  • 362
    Takahashi E, Yoshida K, Sugimori H, Miyakawa M, Izuno T, Yamagami T, Kagamimori S. Influence factors on the development of obesity in 3-year-old children based on the Toyama study. Prev Med 1999; 28: 293296.
  • 363
    Wolfe WS, Campbell CC, Frongillo EA Jr, Haas JD, Melnik TA. Overweight schoolchildren in New York State: prevalence and characteristics. Am J Public Health 1994; 84: 807813.
  • 364
    Siega-Riz AM, Popkin BM, Carson T. Trends in breakfast consumption for children in the United States from 1965 to 1991. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67: 748S756S.
  • 365
    Ma Y, Bertone ER, Stanek EJ 3rd, Reed GW, Hebert JR, Cohen NL, Merriam PA, Ockene IS. Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158: 8592.
  • 366
    Young LR, Nestle M. The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health 2002; 92: 246249.
  • 367
    Rolls BJ, Engell D, Birch LL. Serving portion size influences 5 year old but not 3 year old children's food intakes. J Am Diet Assoc 2000; 100: 232237.
  • 368
    McConahy KL, Smiciklas-Wright H, Birch LL, Mitchell DC, Picciano MF. Food portions are positively related to energy intake and body weight in early childhood. J Pediatr 2002; 140: 340347.
  • 369
    DiGuiseppi C, Roberts I, Li L. Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis [published erratum appears in BMJ 1997; 314: 1385]. BMJ 1997; 314: 710713.
  • 370
    U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Research and Technical Support Center. Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Federal Highway Administration: Lantham, MD, 1997.
  • 371
    Prescott-Clarke P, Primatesta P. Health Survey for England: the Health of Young People ’95–97. The Stationary Office: London, 1998.
  • 372
    Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Field AE, Gillman MW, Frazier AL, Camargo CA Jr, Colditz GA. Activity dietary intake, and weight changes in a longitudinal study of preadolescent and adolescent boys and girls. Pediatrics 2000; 105: E56.
  • 373
    O'Loughlin J, Gray-Donald K, Paradis G, Meshefedjian G. One- and two-year predictors of excess weight gain among elementary schoolchildren in multiethnic, low-income, inner-city neighborhoods. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 739746.
  • 374
    Kimm SY, Barton BA, Obarzanek E, McMahon RP, Sabry ZI, Waclawiw MA, Schreiber GB, Morrison JA, Similo S, Daniels SR. Racial divergence in adiposity during adolescence: the NHLBI growth and health study. Pediatrics 2001; 107: E34.
  • 375
    Robinson TN, Hammer LD, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Wilson DM, Hayward C, Taylor CB. Does television viewing increase obesity and reduce physical activity? Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses among adolescent girls. Pediatrics 1993; 91: 273280.
  • 376
    Dietz WH Jr, Gortmaker SL. Do we fatten our children at the television set? Obesity and television viewing in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 1985; 75: 807812.
  • 377
    Wake M, Hesketh K, Waters E. Television computer use and body mass index in Australian primary school children. J Paediatr Child Health 2003; 39: 130134.
  • 378
    Hernandez B, Gortmaker SL, Colditz GA, Peterson KE, Laird NM, Parra-Cabrera S. Association of obesity with physical activity, television programmes and other forms of video viewing among children in Mexico city. Int J Obes 1999; 23: 845854.
  • 379
    Ruangdaraganon N, Kotchabhakdi N, Udomsubpayakul U, Kunanusont C, Suriyawongpaisal P. The association between television viewing and childhood obesity: a national survey in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 2002; 85 (Suppl. 4): S1075S1080.
  • 380
    Krassas GE, Tzotzas T, Tsametis C, Konstantinidis T. Determinants of body mass index in Greek children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001; 14 (Suppl. 5): 13271333.
  • 381
    Hanley AJ, Harris SB, Gittelsohn J, Wolever TM, Saksvig B, Zinman B. Overweight among children and adolescents in a Native Canadian community: prevalence and associated factors. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 693700.
  • 382
    Gortmaker SL, Must A, Sobol AM, Peterson K, Colditz GA, Dietz WH. Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986–90. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996; 150: 356362.
  • 383
    Wiecha JL, Sobol AM, Peterson GE, Gortmaker SL. Household television access: Associations with screen time, reading and homework among youth. Ambulatory Pediatr 2001; 1: 244251.
  • 384
    Taras HL, Gage M. Advertised foods on children's television. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1995; 149: 649652.
  • 385
    Borzekowski DL, Robinson TN. The 30-second effect: an experiment revealing the impact of television commercials on food preferences of preschoolers. J Am Diet Assoc 2001; 101: 4246.
  • 386
    Dietz WH. The obesity epidemic in young children: Reduce television viewing and promote playing. BMJ 2001; 322: 313314.
  • 387
    Coon KA, Tucker KL. Television and children's consumption patterns. A review of the literature. Minerva Pediatr 2002; 54: 423436.
  • 388
    Shannon B, Peacock J, Brown MJ. Body fatness, television viewing and calorie intake in a sample of Pennsylvania sixth grade children. J Nutr 1991; 23: 262268.
  • 389
    Summerbell C, Ashton V, Campbell K, Edmunds L, Kelly S, Waters E. Interventions for treating obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 3: CD001872.
  • 390
    Knip M, Nuutinen O. Long-term effects of weight reduction on serum lipids and plasma insulin in obese children. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 57: 490493.
  • 391
    Federation of International Societies for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition [http://www.fispghan.org].
  • 392
    Blum RW, Garell D, Hodgman CH, Jorissen TW, Okinow NA, Orr DP, Slap GB. Transition from child-centred to adult health-care systems for adolescents with chronic conditions: a position paper of the society for adolescent medicine. J Adolescent Health 1993; 14: 570576.
  • 393
    Oppong-Odiseng ACK, Heycock EJ. Adolescent health services – through their own eyes. Arch Dis Child 1997; 77: 115119.
  • 394
    Caroli M, Burniat W. Dietary management. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 282306.
  • 395
    Epstein LH. Methodological issues and ten-year outcomes for obese children. Ann NY Acad Sci 1993; 669: 237249.
  • 396
    Robinson TN. Television viewing and childhood obesity. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001; 48: 10171025.
  • 397
    Epstein LH, Roemmich JN. Reducing sedentary behavior: role in modifying physical activity. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2001; 29: 103108.
  • 398
    Epstein LH, Koeske R, Wing RR. Adherence to exercise in obese children. J Cardiac Rehab 1983; 4: 185189.
  • 399
    Epstein LH, Wing RR, Koeske R, Ossip D, Beck S. A comparison of lifestyle change and programmed exercise on weight and fitness changes in obese children. Behav Ther 1982; 13: 651665.
  • 400
    Bracco MM, Rocha-Ferreira MB, Morcillo AM, Colugnati F, Jenovesi J. Energy expenditure among obese and non-obese children of public school. Rev Bras Cien e Mov 2002; 10: 2935.
  • 401
    Haymes EM, McCormick RJ , Buskirk ER. Heat tolerance of exercising lean and obese prepubertal boys. J Appl Physiol 1975; 39: 457461.
  • 402
    Salvatoni A. Surgical treatment. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 355360.
  • 403
    Molnár D, Malecka-Tendera E. Drug therapy. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 345354.
  • 404
    Berkowitz RI, Wadden TA, Tershakovec AM, Cronquist JL. Behavior therapy and sibutramine for the treatment of adolescent obesity. JAMA 2003; 289: 18051812.
  • 405
    Davies PSW, Evans S, Broomhead S, Clough H, Day JME, Laidlaw A, Barnes ND. Effect of growth hormone on height, weight and body composition in Prader–Willi syndrome. Arch Dis Child 1998; 78: 474476.
  • 406
    Nuutinen O, Knip M. Predictors of weight reduction in obese children. Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46: 785794.
  • 407
    Epstein LH, Valoski A, Wing RR, McCurley J. Ten-year follow-up of behavioural, family-based treatment for obese children. JAMA 1990; 264: 25192523.
  • 408
    Golan M, Weizman A, Apter A, Fainaru M. Parents as the exclusive agents of change in the treatment of childhood obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67: 11301135.
  • 409
    Baughcum AE, Chamberlin LA, Deeks CM, Powers SW, Whitaker RC. Maternal perceptions of overweight pre-schoolers. Pediatrics 2000; 106: 13801386.
  • 410
    Wake M, Salmon L, Waters E, Wright M, Hesketh K. Parent-reported health status of overweight and obese Australian primary school children: a cross-sectional population survey. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 717724.
  • 411
    Brownell KD, Kelman JH, Stunkard AJ. Treatment of obese children with and without their mothers: Changes in weight and blood pressure. Pediatrics 1993; 71: 515523.
  • 412
    Mellin LM, Slinkard LA, Irwin CE. Adolescent obesity intervention: validation of the SHAPEDOWN programme. J Am Diet Assoc 1987; 87: 333338.
  • 413
    Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Wilfley DE, Patrick K, Cella JA, Buchta R. Behavioral weight control for overweight adolescents initiated in primary care. Obes Res 2002; 10: 2232.
  • 414
    Flodmark C-E, Lissau I. Psychotherapy. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 327344.
  • 415
    Frelut M-L. Interdisciplinary residential treatment. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 377388.
  • 416
    Dietz WH. Health consequences of obesity in youth: child predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 518524.
  • 417
    Williams CL, Campanaro LA, Squillace M, Bollella M. Management of childhood obesity in pediatric practice. Ann NY Acad Sci 1997; 817: 225240.
  • 418
    Pena M, Bacallao J, Barta L, Amador M, Johnston FE. Fiber and exercise in the treatment of obese adolescents. J Adolesc Health Care 1989; 10: 3034.
  • 419
    Archibald EH, Harrison J, Pencharz P. Body composition changes in obese adolescents on a protein sparing modified fast. Ped Res 1981; 15: 440445.
  • 420
    Dietz WH, Schoeller DA. Optimal dietary therapy for obese adolescents: Comparison of protein plus glucose and protein plus fat. J Pediatrics 1982; 100: 638644.
  • 421
    Endo H, Takagi Y, Nozue T, Kuwahata K, Uemasu F, Kobayashi A. Beneficial effects of dietary intervention on serum lipid and Apolipoprotein levels in obese children. Am J Dis Child 1992; 146: 651665.
  • 422
    Stallings VA, Archibald EH, Pencharz PB, Harrison JE, Bell LE. Potassium magnesium and calcium balance in obese adolescents on a protein-sparing modified fast. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 47: 220224.
  • 423
    Brown MR, Klisy WJ, Hollander J, Campbell MA, Forbes GB. A high protein, low calorie liquid diet in the treatment of very obese adolescents: long-term effect on lean body mass. Am J Clin. Nutr 1983; 38: 2031.
  • 424
    Hoffman RP, Stumbo PJE, Janz KF, Nielsen DH. Altered insulin resistance is associated with increased dietary weight loss in obese children. Hormone Res 1995; 44: 1722.
  • 425
    Nichols JF, Bigelow DM, Canine KM. Short term weight loss and exercise training effects on glucose-induced thermogenersis in obese adolescent males during hypocaloric feeding. Int J Obes 1989; 13: 683690.
  • 426
    Rohrbacher R. Influence of a special camp programme for obese boys on weight loss, self-concept and body image. Res Quarterly 1973; 44: 150157.
  • 427
    Gately PJ, Cooke CB, Butterly RJ, Mackreth P, Carroll S. The effects of a children's summer camp programme on weight loss with a 10-month follow up. Int J Obes 2000; 24: 14451452.
  • 428
    Braet C, Van Winckel M. Long-term follow-up of a cognitive behavioral treatment programme for obese children. Behavior Therapy 2000; 31: 5574.
  • 429
    Glenny A-M, O'Meara S, Sheldon TA, Wilson C. The treatment and prevention of obesity: a systematic review of the literature. Int J Obes 1997; 21: 715737.
  • 430
    Epstein LH, Myers MD, Raynor HA, Saelens BE. Treatment of pediatric obesity. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 554570.
  • 431
    Cash R, Keusch GT, Lamstein J. Child Health and Survival: the UNICEF GOBI-FFF Programme. Croom-Helm: Kent, UK, 1987.
  • 432
    Kibel MA, Wagstaff LA. Child Health for All: a Manual for Southern Africa. Oxford University Press: Cape Town, 1995.
  • 433
    Clements A. Infant and Family Health in Australia: a Textbook for Community Health Workers, 2nd edn. Churchill Livingstone: Melbourne, 1992.
  • 434
    Harvey D, Miles M, Smyth D (eds). Community Child Health and Paediatrics. Butterworth Heinemann: Oxford, 1995.
  • 435
    Elster AB, Kuznets NJ. AMA Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS). Recommendations and Rationale. American Medical Association: Illinois, 1994.
  • 436
    Feldman W, Beagan BL. Screening for childhood obesity. In: Canadian Guide to Clinical Health Care. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Health Canada: Ottawa, 1994 pp 334344[http://www.ctfphc.org/Full_Text_printable/Ch30full.htm].
  • 437
    Beatty LA, Sigmon FL Jr. Well child care. In: Sloane PD, Slatt LM, Curtis P (eds). Essentials of Family Medicine, 2nd edn. Williams & Wilkin: Baltimore, 1993 pp 131139.
  • 438
    Farmer RDT, Miller DL. Lecture Notes on Epidemiology and Community Medicine, 2nd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford, 1983.
  • 439
    NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Effective health care. The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. University of York Bulletin 2002; 7: 112.
  • 440
    Pavlovic M. Monitoring model of nutritional status of chidren in Serbia: and example in the North Backa Regon. In: PavlovicM (ed). Nutritional Status of Children, Monographs. Public Health Institute: Subotica, 2002 pp 7192.
  • 441
    Jelliffe DB (ed). Child Health in the Tropics: a Practical Handbook for Health Personnel, 5th edn. Edward Arnold: London, 1985.
  • 442
    Ong BP. Evaluation of Obesity Clinic Programme for Singapore Obese School Children. Dissertation submitted for the Degree of Master of Science (Public Health), National University of Singapore: Singapore, 1988.
  • 443
    Hui LL, Nelson EA, Yu LM, Li AM, Fok TF. Risk factors for childhood overweight in 6- to 7-year-old Hong Kong children. Int J Obes 2003; 27: 11411148.
  • 444
    Ebbeling CB, Rodriguez NR. Anthropometric techniques for identification of obese children. In: DaltonS (ed). Overweight and Weight Management. The Health Professional's Guide to Understanding and Practice. ASPEN: Maryland, 1997 pp 486496.
  • 445
    Norton K, Olds T (eds). Anthropometrica. A Textbook of Body Measurement for Sports and Health Courses. UNSW Press: Sydney, 2002.
  • 446
    Implementing clinical practice guidelines: Can guidelines be used to improve clinical practice? Effective Health Care 1994; 1 (Suppl. 8): 112.
  • 447
    Barlow SE, Dietz WH. Obesity evaluation and treatment: Expert Committee recommendations. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services. Pediatrics 1998; 102: E29.
  • 448
    INSERM. Obesité dépistage et prévention chez l’enfant. Editions Inserm 2000; 1: 1325. An English synopsis is available at the INSERM website [http://www.inserm.fr].
  • 449
    Irving LM, Neumark-Sztainer D. Integrating the prevention of eating disorders and obesity: feasible or futile? Preventive Med 2002; 34: 299309.
  • 450
    Harvey EL, Glenny A, Kirk SF, Summerbell CD. Improving health professionals’ management and the organisation of care for overweight and obese people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 2: CD000984.
  • 451
    Nova ARA, Sala E. Long-term management of obesity in paediatric office practice: experimental evaluation of two different types of intervention. Ambulatory Child Health 2001; 7: 239248.
  • 452
    Lissau I, Burniat W, Poskitt EME, Cole T. Prevention. In: Burniat W, Cole T, Lissau I, Poskitt EME (eds). Child and Adolescent Obesity. Causes and Consequences; Prevention and Management. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002 pp 243269.
  • 453
    Dietz WH, Gortmaker SL. Preventing obesity in children and adolescents. Ann Rev Public Health 2001; 22: 337353.
  • 454
    Dietz WH, Bland MG, Gortmaker SL, Molloy M, Schmid TL. Policy tools for the childhood obesity epidemic. J Law Med Ethics 2002; 30 (Suppl. 3): 8387.
  • 455
    Garrow J. Importance of obesity. BMJ 1991; 303: 704706.
  • 456
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Recommendations from overweight youth regarding school-based weight control programmes. J Sch Health 1997; 67: 428433.
  • 457
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Perry C, Casey MA. Factors influencing food choices of adolescents: findings from focus-group discussions with adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 1999; 99: 929937.
  • 458
    WHO. World Health Organization Global School Health Initiative, Fact Sheet No. 92. World Health Organization: Geneva. Revised June 1998 [http://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact092.html].
  • 459
    Sahota P, Rudolf MC, Dixey R, Hill AJ, Barth JH, Cade J. Randomised controlled trial of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity. BMJ 2001; 323: 10291032.
  • 460
    Sahota P, Rudolf MC, Dixey R, Hill AJ, Barth JH, Cade J. Evaluation of implementation and effect of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity. BMJ 2001; 323: 10271029.
  • 461
    Toh CM, Cutter J, Chew SK. School based intervention has reduced obesity in Singapore. BMJ 2002; 324: 427.
  • 462
    Singapore Ministry of Health. The State of Health 2001. The Report of the Director of Medical Services Singapore. Ministry of Health: Singapore, 2002 p 35[http://www.moh.gov.sg/newmoh/pdf/pub/health_report.pdf].
  • 463
    Singapore Ministry of Health. National Health Survey 1998. Ministry of Health: Singapore, 1999[http://www.moh.gov.sg/newmoh/pdf/pub/nhs.pdf].
  • 464
    Mamalakis G, Kafatos A, Manios Y, Anagnostopoulou T, Apostolaki I. Obesity indices in a cohort of primary school children in Crete: a six year prospective study. Int J Obes 2000; 24: 765771.
  • 465
    French SA, Story M, Jeffery RW, Snyder P, Eisenberg M, Sidebottom A, Murray D. Pricing strategy to promote fruit and vegetable purchase in high school cafeterias. J Am Diet Assoc 1997; 97: 10081010.
  • 466
    French SA. Pricing effects on food choices. J Nutr 2003; 133: 841S843S.
  • 467
    Hannan P, French SA, Story M, Fulkerson JA. A pricing strategy to promote sales of lower fat foods in high school cafeterias: acceptability and sensitivity analysis. Am J Health Promot 2002; 17: 16.
  • 468
    French SA, Jeffery RW, Story M, Breitlow KK, Baxter JS, Hannan P, Snyder MP. Pricing and promotion effects on low-fat vending snack purchases: the CHIPS Study. Am J Public Health 2001; 91: 112117.
  • 469
    French SA, Jeffery RW, Story M, Hannan P, Snyder MP. A pricing strategy to promote low-fat snack choices through vending machines. Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 849851.
  • 470
    Robinson TN. Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999; 282: 15611567.
  • 471
    Robinson TN. Can a school-based intervention to reduce television use decrease adiposity in children in grades 3 and 4? West J Med 2000; 173: 40.
  • 472
    Matsudo V, Matsudo S, Andrade D, Araujo T, Andrade E, De Oliveira LC, Braggion G. Promotion of physical activity in a developing country: the Agita Sao Paulo experience. Public Health Nutr 2002; 5: 253261.
  • 473
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for school health programmes to promote lifelong healthy eating. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 1996; 45 (RR-9): 141.
  • 474
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for school and community programmes to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 1997; 46 (RR-6): 136.
  • 475
    Boute D, Lafay L, Basdevant A, Charles MA. Influence of the mother's underreporting of food intake on the children's reported diet. Results from The Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Study. Int J Obes 1998; 22 (Suppl. 3): S136.
  • 476
    Gortmaker SL, Peterson K, Wiecha J, Sobol AM, Dixit S, Fox MK, Laird N. Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153: 409418.
  • 477
    Micucci S, Thomas H, Vohra J. The Effectiveness of School-Based Strategies for the Primary Prevention of Obesity and for Promoting Physical Activity and/or Nutrition, the Major Modifiable Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: a Review of Reviews. Public Health Research, Education and Development Programme; Effective Public Health Practice Project: Hamilton, Ontario, 2002.
  • 478
    Dobbins M, Lockett D, Michel I, Beyers J, Feldman L, Vohra J, Micucci S. The Effectiveness of School-Based Interventions in Promoting Physical Activity and Fitness Among Children and Youth: a Systematic Review. Public Health Research, Education and Development Programme; Effective Public Health Practice Project: Hamilton, Ontario, 2001.
  • 479
    Lytle LA, Jacobs DR, Perry CL, Klepp K-I. Achieving physiological change in school-based intervention trials: what makes a preventive intervention successful? Br J Nutr 2002; 88: 219221.
  • 480
    Richter KP, Harris KJ, Paine-Andrews A, Fawcett SB, Schmid TL, Lankenau BH, Johnston J. Measuring the health environment for physical activity and nutrition among youth: a review of the literature and applications for community initiatives. Preventive Medicine 2000; 31: S98S111.
  • 481
    World Health Organization. Health Impact Assessment Methods and Strategies. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen, [http://www.euro.who.int/healthimpact] accessed March 2004.
  • 482
    World Health Organization. Community participation in local health and sustainable development: Approaches and techniques. In: European Sustainable Development and Health Series: 4: 1–94. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen, 1999.
  • 483
    Pietinen P, Nissinen A, Vartiainen E, Tuomilehto A, Uusitalo U, Ketola A, Moisio S, Puska P. Dietary changes in the North Karelia Project (1972–82). Prev Med 1988; 17: 183193.
  • 484
    US Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. Office of the Surgeon General, US Department of of Health and Human Services: Rockville, MD, 2001.
  • 485
    Cockerham, WC, Rütten, A, Abel, T. Conceptualizing contemporary health lifestyles. Moving beyond Weber. Sociol Q 1997; 38: 321342.
  • 486
    Nestle M, Jacobson MF. Halting the obesity epidemic. A public health policy approach. Public Health Rep 2000; 115: 1224.
  • 487
    French SA, Story M, Jeffery RW. Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Ann Rev Public Health 2001; 22: 309335.
  • 488
    Economos CD, Brownson RC, DeAngelis MA, Foerster SB, Foreman CT, Gregson J, Kumanyika SK, Pate RR. What lessons have been learned from other attempts to guide social change? Nutr Rev 2001; 59: S40S56.
  • 489
    American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health. Policy statement: soft drinks in schools. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 152154.
  • 490
    Nestle M. Food Politics. How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. University of California Press: Berkely, CA, 2002.
  • 491
    World Health Organization. World Health Assembly Agenda Item A55/16. WHO: Geneva, 2002.