The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes


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Overweight and obesity are serious, large-scale, global, public health concerns requiring population-based childhood overweight and obesity prevention. The overall objective of this review is to identify aspects of successful childhood overweight prevention programmes. This objective will be met by assessing existing interventions quantitatively as well as qualitatively, identifying efficacy, effectiveness and implementation, and evaluating potential adverse effects of previous studies. This review was limited to school-based studies with a quantitative evaluation using anthropometric outcomes and that intervene on diet or activity-related behaviours. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to identify factors related to successful interventions as well as adverse consequences. Sixty-eight per cent of the interventions, or 17 of the 25, were ‘effective’ based on a statistically significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) or skin-folds for the intervention group. Four interventions were effective by BMI as well as skin-fold measures. Of these, two targeted reductions in television viewing. The remaining two studies targeted direct physical activity intervention through the physical education programme combined with nutrition education. Of the interventions reported here, one was effective in reducing childhood overweight but was also associated with an increase in underweight prevalence. Few other studies reported outcomes for underweight. The majority of overweight/obesity prevention programmes included in this review were effective. Physical education in schools and reducing television viewing are two examples of interventions that have been successful. Because few studies report on underweight prevalence, this review recommends giving more attention to preventing adverse outcomes by reporting the intervention impact on the frequency distribution for both BMI and adiposity measures.