• 1
    WHO. Obesity, Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. World Health Organization: Geneva, June 3-5-1997, 2000. 894.
  • 2
    Ebbeling CB, Rawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 2002; 360: 473482.
  • 3
    Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R. Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev 2004; 5(Suppl.1): 485.
  • 4
    Popkin BM, Doak C. The obesity epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon (review). Nutr Rev 1998; 56: 106114.
  • 5
    Flegal KM. The obesity epidemic in children and adults: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31(Suppl.11): S509S514.
  • 6
    Booth ML, Wake M, Armstrong T, Chey T, Hesketh K, Mathur S. The epidemiology of overweight and obesity among Australian children and adolescents: 1995–97. Aust N Z J Public Health 2001; 25: 162169.
  • 7
    Bundred P, Kitchiner D, Buchan I. Prevalence of overweight and obese children between 1989 and 1998: population based series of cross sectional studies. BMJ 2001; 322: 326328.
  • 8
    Livingstone MBE. Epidemiology of childhood obesity in Europe. Eur J Pediatr 2000; 159(Suppl.1): S14S34.
  • 9
    Sakamoto N, Wansorn S, Tontisirin K, Marui E. A social epidemiologic study of obesity among preschool children in Thailand. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25: 389394.
  • 10
    Cole TJ, Belizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for childhood overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000; 320: 16.
  • 11
    Chinn S, Rona RJ. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity across three sectional studies of British children 1974–94. BMJ 2001; 322: 2426.
  • 12
    British Nutrition Foundation Taskforce. Report on Obesity. Blackwell Science: London, 1999.
  • 13
    Farooqi I, O' Rahilly S. Recent advances in genetics of severe obesity. Arch Dis Child 2000; 83: 3134.
  • 14
    Rankinen T, Perusse L, Weisagel SJ, Snyder EE, Chagnon YC, Bouchard C. The human obesity gene map: the 2001 update. Obes Res 2002; 10: 196243.
  • 15
    Parsons TJ, Power C, Logan S, Summerbell CD. Childhood predictors of adult obesity: a systematic review. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999; 23(Suppl.8): S1S107.
  • 16
    Egger G, Swinburn B. An ‘ecological’ approach to the obesity pandemic. Br Med J Public Health 1997; 315: 477480.
  • 17
    Swinburn B, Egger G. Preventive strategies against weight gain and obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 3: 289301.
  • 18
    Kumanyika SK. Minisymposium on obesity: overview and some strategic considerations. Annu Rev Public Health 2001; 22: 293308.
  • 19
    Wabitsch M. Overweight and obesity in European children: definition and diagnostic procedures, risk factors and consequences for later health outcome. Eur J Pediatr 2000; 159(Suppl.1): S8S13.
  • 20
    Guo SS, Chumlea WC. Tracking body mass index in children in relation to overweight in adulthood. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 145S148S.
  • 21
    Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 869873.
  • 22
    Lake JK, Power C, Cole TJ. Child to adult body mass index in the 1958 birth cohort: associations with parental obesity. Arch Dis Child 1997; 77: 376381.
  • 23
    Csabi G, Torok K, Jeges S, Molnar D. Presence of metabolic cardiovascular syndrome in obese children. Eur J Pediatr 2000; 159: 9194.
  • 24
    Young-Hyman D, Schlundt DG. Evaluation of the insulin resistance syndrome in 5–10 year old overweight/obese African-American children. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 13591364.
  • 25
    Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Treating obesity in youth: should dietary glycemic load be a consideration? Adv Pediatr 2001; 48: 179212.
  • 26
    Gortmaker SL, Must A, Perrin JM, Sobol AM, Dietz WH. Social and economic consequences of overweight in adolescence and young adulthood. N Engl J Med 1993; 39: 10081012.
  • 27
    Dietz WH. Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 518525.
  • 28
    Hill AJ, Draper E, Stack J. A weight on children's minds: body shape dissatisfaction at 9 years old. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1994; 18: 383389.
  • 29
    Wardle J, Voltz C, Golding C. Social variation in attitudes to obesity in children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997; 19: 562569.
  • 30
    Patton G, Selzer R, Coffey C, Carlin JB, Wolfe R. Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population-based cohort study over 3 years. BMJ 1999; 318: 765768.
  • 31
    Klesges RC, Ward KD, Ray JW, Cutter G, Jacobs DR, Wagenknecht LE. The prospective relationship between smoking and weight in a young biracial cohort: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998; 66: 987993.
  • 32
    Dietz WH. Implications and treatment of adolescent obesity. Clin Nutr 1985; 4: 103108.
  • 33
    Epstein LH. Helping obese youngsters lose weight: what works . . . what doesn’t. Consultant 1998; 38: 24622465.
  • 34
    Barlow SE, Dietz WH. Obesity evaluation and treatment: expert committee recommendations. Pediatrics 1998; 102: 11.
  • 35
    Barlow SE, Dietz WH, Klish WJ, Trowbridge FL. Medical evaluation of overweight children and adolescents: reports from pedatricians, pediatric nurse practitioners, and registered dietitians. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 222228.
  • 36
    Yanovski JA. Pediatric obesity. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2001; 2: 371383.
  • 37
    American Academy of Pediatrics CoN. Policy statement: prevention of pediatric overweight and obesity. Pediatrics 2003; 112: 424430.
  • 38
    Berg F, Buechner J. Guidelines for childhood obesity prevention programs: promoting healthy weight in children. J Nutr Educ Behav 2003; 35: 15.
  • 39
    Serdula MK, Mokdad AH, Williamson DF, Galuska DA, Mendlein JM, Heath GW. Prevalence of attempting weight loss and strategies for controlling weight. JAMA 1999; 282: 13531358.
  • 40
    Orleans CT. Promoting the maintenance of health behavior change: recommendations for the next generation of research and practice. Health Psychol 2000; 19(Suppl.1): S76S83.
  • 41
    Health Canada. The Population Health Template: Key Elements and Actions that Define a Population Health Approach, Draft July, Health Canada Population and Public Health Branch, Strategic Policy Directorate. Author: Ottawa, 2001.
  • 42
    Health Canada. Integrated Pan-Canadian Healthy Living Strategy. Health Canada. Available at:, 2003.
  • 43
    WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004; 363: 157163.
  • 44
    Gower BA, Nagy TR, Trowbridge CL, Dezenberg C, Goran MI. Fat distribution and insulin response in prepubertal African American and white children. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67: 821827.
  • 45
    Reaven P, Nader PR, Berry C, Hoy T. Cardiovascular disease insulin risk in Mexican-American and Anglo-American children and their mothers. Pediatrics 1998; 101: e12.
  • 46
    Kimm SYS, Barton BA, Berhane K, Payne GH, Schrieber GB. Self esteem and adiposity in black and white girls: the NHLBI growth and health study. Ann Epidemiol 1997; 7: 550560.
  • 47
    Luke A, Durazo-Arvizu R, Rotimi C, Prewitt TE, Forrester TE. Relation between body mass index and body fat in black population samples from Nigeria, Jamaica and the United States. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 67: 391396.
  • 48
    Luke A, Cooper R, Prewitt TE, Adeyemo AA, Forrester TE. Nutritional consequences of the African diaspora. Ann Rev Nutr 2001; 21: 4771.
  • 49
    Sobal J. Commentary: globalization and the epidemiology of obesity. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30: 11361137.
  • 50
    Perez CE. Health Status and Health Behaviour Among Immigrants. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, ON, 2002. Catalogue 82-003.
  • 51
    Popkin BM, Udry RJ. Adolescent obesity increases significantly in second and third generation US immigrants: the national longitudinal study of adolescent health. J Nutr 1998; 128: 701706.
  • 52
    Briss PA, Fielding J, Hopkins DP, Woolf SF, Hinman AR, Harris JR. Developing an evidence based guide to community preventive services-methods. Am J Prev Med 2000; 18(1S): 3543.
  • 53
    Green J, Tones K. Towards a secure evidence base for health promotion. J Public Health Med 1999; 21: 133139.
  • 54
    Zara S, Wright-De Aguero LK, Briss PA, Truman BI, Hopkins DP, Hennessy MH, Sosin DM, Anderson L, Carande-Kulis VG, Teutsch SM, Pappaioanou M. Data collection instrument and procedure for systematic reviews in the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Am J Prev Med 2000; 18(1S): 4474.
  • 55
    Black N. Why we need observational studies to evaluate the effectiveness of health care. BMJ 2001; 312: 322225.
  • 56
    Giacomini MK, Cook DJ. Evidenced-based medicine Working Group. Users’ guide to the medical literature: XXIII. Qualtiative research in health care: what are the results and how do they help me care for my patients. JAMA 2000; 284: 478482.
  • 57
    CDC. Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health. Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Washington DC, 1999. 17/48 (RR11).
  • 58
    Glenny AM, O'Meara S, Melville A, Sheldon T, Wilson C. The treatment and prevention of obesity: a systematic review of the literature. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997; 21: 715737.
  • 59
    Hardeman W, Griffin S, Johnston M, Kinmoth A, Wareham N. Interventions to prevent weight gain: a systematic review of psychological models and behaviour change methods. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000; 24: 131143.
  • 60
    Campbell K, Waters E, O'Meara S, Kelly S, Summerbell CD. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. The Cochrane Collaboration. February 27, 2002. Available at: (accessed November 27, 2003).
  • 61
    Hamilton N, Bhatti T. Population Health Promotion: An Integrated Model of Population Health and Health Promotion. Health Promotion Development Division, Health Canada: Ottawa, 1996.
  • 62
    WHO, Health and Welfare Canada, CPHA. Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Can J Public Health 1986; 77: 425430.
  • 63
    Community Prevention of Obesity Steering Committee. Community Prevention of Obesity: Framework for Action. Calgary Health Region: Calgary, 2003.
  • 64
    Flynn MA, McNeil DA, Maloff B, Wu M, Mutasingwa D, Ford C, Tough SC. Web supplement for reducing obesity and related chronic disease risk in children and youth: a synthesis of evidence with ‘best practice’ recommendations. Calgary Health Region, 2005. Available at:
  • 65
    Lowe HJ, Barnett GO. Understanding and using the medical subject headings (MeSH) vocabulary to perform literature searches. JAMA 1994; 271: 11031108.
  • 66
    Fondren LO. Internet searching strategies. Fondren Library Online. Available at: (accessed August, 2003).
  • 67
    Kirk EE. Evaluating information found on the internet. Sheridan Libraries of the John Hopkins University. Available at: (accessed August, 2003).
  • 68
    UC Berkley TL. Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply and Questions to Ask. University of California Berkely. Available at: (accessed August, 2003).
  • 69
    Oxford CfEBM. Levels of Evidence. Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. Available at:
  • 70
    CPHA. Review guidelines for qualitative research papers. Can J Public Health 2000; 91: 12.
  • 71
    Creswell J. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Traditions. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA, 1998.
  • 72
    Malterud K. Qualitative research: standards, challenges, and guidelines. Lancet 2001; 358: 483488.
  • 73
    Morse JM, Richards L. Read Me First for a User's Guide to Qualitative Methods. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA, 2002.
  • 74
    Michielutte R, Sharp PC, Dignan MB, Blinson K. Cultural issues in the development of cancer control programs for American Indian populations. J Health Care Poor Underserved 1994; 5: 280296.
  • 75
    Wang CY, Abbot LJ. Development of a community based diabetes and hypertension preventive program. Public Health Nurs 2001; 15: 406414.
  • 76
    Health Canada. Canadian Research on Immigration and Health. Health Canada: Ottawa, 1999. H21-149/1999E.
  • 77
    Au L, Tso A, Chin K. Asian-American adolescent immigrants: the New York city schools experience. J School Health 1997; 67: 277279.
  • 78
    Brown SA, Hanis CL. Culturally competent diabetes education for Mexican Americans: the Starr county study. Diabetes Educ 1999; 25: 226236.
  • 79
    Fitzgibbon ML, Prewitt TE, Blackman LR, Simon P, Luke A, Keys LC, Avellone ME, Singh V. Quantitative assessment of recruitment efforts for prevention trials in two diverse black populations. Prev Med 1998; 27: 838845.
  • 80
    Shintani T, Beckham S, Kanawali H, O'Connor CHW, Hughs C, Sato A. The Waianae diet program: a culturally sensitive, community based obesity and clinical intervention program for the native Hawaiian population. Hawaii Med J 1994; 53: 136147.
  • 81
    Hoving JL, Gross AR, Gasner D, Kay T, Kennedy C, Honduras MA, Haines T, Bouter L. A critical appraisal of review articles on the effectiveness of conservative treatment for neck pain. Spine 2001; 26: 196205.
  • 82
    Oxman AD. Checklist for review articles. BMJ 1994; 309: 648651.
  • 83
    Oxman AD, Cook DJ, Guyatt GH. Users’ guides to the medical literature VI: how to use an overview. JAMA 1994; 272: 13671371.
  • 84
    Oxman AD, Guyatt GH, Singer J, Goldsmith CH, Hutchison BG, Milner RA. Agreement among reviewers of review articles. J Clin Epidemiol 1991; 44: 9198.
  • 85
    McKinlay JB. Health promotion through healthy public policy: the contribution of complementary research methods. Can J Public Health 1992; 83(Suppl.1): S11S19.
  • 86
    Fitzgibbon ML, Stolley MR, Dyer AR, VanHorn L, KauferChristoffel K. A community-based obesity prevention program for minority children: rationale and study design for Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Prev Med 2002; 34: 289297.
  • 87
    Berkowitz RI, Wadden TA, Tershakovec AM, Cronquist J. Behaviour therapy and sibutramine for the treatment of adolescent obesity. JAMA 2003; 289: 18051812.
  • 88
    Ambler C, Eliakim A, Brasel JA, Lee W-NP, Burke G, Cooper DM. Fitness and the effect of exercise training on the dietary intake of healthy adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22: 354362.
  • 89
    Barnow S, Bernheim D, Schroder C, Lauffer H, Fusch C, Freyberger HJ. [Obesity in childhood and adolescence: first results of a multimodeal intervention study in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 2003; 53: 714.
  • 90
    Beech BM, Klesges RC, Kumanyika SK, Murray DM, Klesges L, McClanahan B, Slawson D, Nunnally C, Rochon J, McLain-Allen B, Pree-Cary J. Child- and parent-targeted interventions: the Memphis GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 2003; 13: S1S40 to S41–53.
  • 91
    Davis CE, Hunsberger S, Murray DM, Fabsitz RR, Himes JH, Stephenson LK, Caballero B, Skipper B. Design and statistical analysis for the Pathways study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(Suppl.4): 760S763S.
  • 92
    Davis SM, Going SB, Helitzer DL, Teufel NI, Snyder P, Gittelsohn J, Metcalfe L, Arviso V, Evans M, Smyth M, Brice R, Altaha J. Pathways: a culturally appropriate obesity-prevention program for American Indian schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(Suppl.4): 796S802S.
  • 93
    Gittelsohn J, Evans M, Story M, Davis SM, Metcalfe L, Helitzer DL, Clay TE. Multisite formative assessment for the Pathways study to prevent obesity in American Indian schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(Suppl.4): 767S772S.
  • 94
    Gittelsohn J, Merkle S, Story M, Stone E, Steckle RA, Noel J, Davis S, Martin CJ, Ethelbah B. School climate and implementation of the Pathways study. Prev Med 2003; 37(6 Pt 2): S97S106.
  • 95
    Helitzer DL, Davis SM, Gittelsohn J, Going SB, Murray DM, Snyder P, Steckler AB. Process evaluation in a multsite, primary obesity-prevention trial in American Indian schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(Suppl.4): 816S824S.
  • 96
    Caballero B, Clay T, Davis SM, Ethelbah B, Rock BH, Lohman T, Norman J, Story M, Stone EJ, Stephenson L, Stevens J. Pathways: a school-based, randomized controlled trial for the prevention of obesity in American Indian schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78: 10301038.
  • 97
    Cunningham-Sabo L, Snyder M, Anliker J, Thompson J, Weber J, Thomas O, Ring K, Stewart D, Platero H, Nielsen L. Impact of the Pathways food service intervention on breakfast served in American-Indian schools. Prev Med 2003; 37(6 Pt 2): S46S54.
  • 98
    Snyder P, Anliker J, Cunningham-Sabo L, Dixon LB, Altaha J, Chamberlain A, Davis S, Evans M, Hurley J, Weber JL. The Pathways study: a model for lowering the fat in school meals. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(Suppl.4): 810S815S.
  • 99
    Teufel NI, Perry CL, Story M, Flint-Wagner HG, Levin S, Clay TE, Davis SM, Gittelsohn J, Altaha J, Pablo JL. Pathways family intervention for third-grade American Indian children. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(Suppl.4): 803S– 809S.
  • 100
    Going S, Thompson J, Cano S, Stewart D, Stone E, Harnack L, Hastings C, Norman J, Corbin C. The effects of the Pathways obesity prevention program on physical activity in American Indian children. Prev Med 2003; 37(6 Pt 2): S62S69.
  • 101
    Himes JH, Ring K, Gittelsohn J, Cunningham-Sabo L, Weber J, Thompson J, Harnack L, Suchindran C. Impact of the Pathways intervention on dietary intakes of American Indian schoolchildren. Prev Med 2003; 37(6 Pt 2): S55S61.
  • 102
    Lohman T, Thompson J, Going S, Himes JH, Caballero B, Norman J, Cano S, Ring K. Indices of changes in adiposity in American Indian children. Prev Med 2003; 37(6 Pt 2): S91S96.
  • 103
    Stevens J, Story M, Ring K, Murray DM, Cornell CE, Juhaeri, Gittelsohn J. The impact of the Pathways intervention on psychosocial variables related to diet and physical activity in American Indian schoolchildren. Prev Med 2003; 37(6 Pt 2): S70S79.
  • 104
    Story M, Snyder MP, Anliker J, Weber JL, Cunningham-Sabo L, Stone EJ, Chamberlain A, Ethelbah B, Suchindran C, Ring K. Changes in the nutrient content of school lunches: results from the Pathways study. Prev Med 2003; 37(6 Pt 2): S35S45.
  • 105
    Weber JL, Cunningham-Sabo L, Skipper B, Lytle L, Stevens J, Gittelsohn J, Anliker J, Heller K, Pablo J. Portion-size estimation training in second- and third-grade American Indian children. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 64(4S): 782S787S.
  • 106
    Deforche B, Bourdeayudhuij I, Braet C, Hardyns L, Vermaut S, Bouckaert J. [Evolution of overweight and fitness in obese children during residential treatment]. Tijdschrift voor Psychologie Gezondheid 2001; 29: 98108.
  • 107
    Flodmark CE, Ohlsson T, Ryden O, Sveger T. Prevention of progression to severe obesity in a group of obese school children treated with family therapy. Pediatrics 1993; 91: 880884.
  • 108
    Gortmaker SL, Peterson KE, Wiecha J, Sobol AM, Dixit S, Fox MK, Laird N. Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153: 409418.
  • 109
    Harrell JS, Gansky SA, McMurray RG, Bangdiwala SI, Frauman AC, Bradley CB. School-based interventions improve heart health in children with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors. Pediatrics 1998; 102(2 Pt 1): 371380.
  • 110
    Harrell JS, McMurray RG, Bangdiwala SI, Frauman AC, Gansky SA, Bradley CB. Effects of a school-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in elementary school children: the Cardiovascular Health in Children (CHIC) Study. J Pediatr 1996; 128: 114.
  • 111
    Harrell JS, McMurray RG, Gansky SA, Bangdiwala SI, Bradley CB. A public health vs. risk-based intervention to improve cardiovascular health in elementary school children: the cardiovascular Health in children study. Am J Public Health 1999; 89: 15291535.
  • 112
    Hergenroeder AC, Kozinetz C, Schoene RB. Skinfold measurements, oxygen uptake, and exercise in adolescents. Clin J Sport Med (NY) 1993; 3: 153160.
  • 113
    Karolkiewicz J, Szczesniak L, Kasprzak Z, Rychlewski T, Banaszak F. [Reduced glutathione concentration in red blood cells and lipid profile individual subjects to systematic exercise and low calorie diet]. Diabetoligia Polska 1998; 51: 5156.
  • 114
    Komorowski JM, Zwaigzne-Raczynska J, Owczarczyk I, Golebiowska M, Zarzycki J. [Effect of mazindole (teronac) on certain hormonal parameters in simple obesity in children]. Pediatr Pol 1982; 57: 241246.
  • 115
    Korsten-Reck U, Muller H, Oberhauser B, Rokitzki L, Keul J. [Exercise and dietary restriction – an outpatient programme for obese children]. Offentliche Gesundheitswesen 1990; 52: 441447.
  • 116
    Livieri C, Novazi F, Lorini R. [Usefulness of highly purified glucomannan fibres in childhood obesity]. Pediatr Med Chir 1992; 14: 195198.
  • 117
    Lytle LA, Stone EJ, Nichaman M, Perry CL, Montgomery DH, Nicklas T, Zive MM, Mitchell PD, Dwyer J, Ebzery MK, Evans M, Galati T. Changes in nutrient intakes of elementary school children following a school-based intervention: results from the CATCH study. Prev Med 1996; 24: 465477.
  • 118
    Osganian SK, Ebzery MK, Montgomery DH, Nicklas T, Snyder MP, Stone EJ, Zive MM, Bachman KJ, Rice R, Parcel GS. Changes in the nutrient content of school lunches: results from the CATCH eat smart food service intervention. Prev Med 1996; 25: 400412.
  • 119
    Osganian SK, Hoelscher DM, Zive MM, Mitchell PD, Snyder MP, Webber LS. Maintenance of effects of the eat smart school food service program: results from the CATCH-ON study. Health Educ Behav 2003; 30: 418433.
  • 120
    Nader PR, Stone EJ, Lytle LA, Perry CL, Osganian SK, Kelder S, Webber LS, Elder J, Montgomery DH, Feldman HA, Wu M, Johnson C, Parcel GS, Luepker RV. Three year maintenance of improved diet and physical activity. The CATCH cohort. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153: 695704.
  • 121
    Nader PR, Sellers D, Johnson C, Perry CL, Stonel E, Cook K, Bebchuk J, Luepker RV. The effects of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve children's diet and physical activity: the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health. Prev Med 1996; 25: 455464.
  • 122
    Edmundson E, Parcel GS, Feldman HA, Elder JP, Perry CL, Johnson C, Williston BJ, Stone EJ, Yang M, Lytle LA, Webber LS. The effects of the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health upon psychosocial determinants of diet and physical activity behavior. Prev Med 1996; 25: 442454.
  • 123
    Webber LS, Osganian SK, Feldman HA, Wu M, Mackenzie TL, Nichaman M, Lytle LA, Edmundson E, Cutler J, Nader PR, Luepker RV. Cardiovascular risk factors among children after a 21/2 year intervention – the CATCH study. Prev Med 1996; 25: 432441.
  • 124
    Luepker RV, Perry CL, McKinlay SM, Nader PR, Parcel GS, Stone EJ, Webber LS, Elder JP, Feldman HA, Johnson CC, Kelder SH, Wu M. Outcomes of a field trial to improve children's dietary patterns and physical activity. JAMA 1996; 275: 768776.
  • 125
    Manios Y, Moscandreas J, Hatzis C, Kafatos A. Evaluation of a health and nutrition education program in primary school children of Crete over a three-year period. Prev Med 1999; 28: 149159.
  • 126
    O'Dea JA, Abraham S. Improving the body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young male and female adolescents: a new educational approach that focuses on self-esteem. Int J Eat Dis 2000; 28: 4357.
  • 127
    Robinson TN. Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999; 282: 15611567.
  • 128
    Salvatoni A, Bosetti G, Gambarini G. [Serum lipids in obese children: a double blind controlled trial on treatment by diet only vs diet and drugs]. Pediatr Oggi 1991; 11: 243245.
  • 129
    Vido L, Facchin P, Antonello I, Gobber D, Rigon F. Childhood obesity treatment: double blinded trial on dietary fibres (glucomannan) versus placebo. Padiatr Padol 1993; 28: 133136.
  • 130
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan P, Stat M, Rex J. New Moves: a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent girls. Prev Med 2003; 37: 4151.
  • 131
    Harbour R, Miller J. A new system for grading recommendations in evidence based guidelines. BMJ 2001; 323: 334336.
  • 132
    Douketis JD, Feightner JW, Attia J, Feldman WF. Canadian task force on preventive health care: pediatric health examination, 1999 update: detection, prevention and treatment of obesity. CMAJ 1999; 160: 513525.
  • 133
    Pollack CD. Planning for success: the first steps in new program development. J School Nurs 1994; 10: 1115.
  • 134
    Jimenez MM, Receveur O, Trifonopoulow M, Kuhni H, Paradis G, Macaulay AC. Comparison of the dietary intakes of two different groups of children (grades 4 to 6) before and after the Kahnawake schools diabetes prevention project. J Am Diet Assoc 2003; 103: 11911194.
  • 135
    Macaulay AC, Paradis G, Potvin L, Cross EJ, Saad-Haddad C, McComber A, Desrosiers S, Kirby R, Montour LT, Lamping DL, Leduc N, Rivard M. The Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project: intervention, evaluation, and baseline results of a diabetes primary prevention program with a native community in Canada. Prev Med 1997; 26: 779790.
  • 136
    Figueroa-Colon R, Franklin FA, Lee JY, Von Almen TK, Suskind RM. Feasibility of a clinic based hypocaloric dietary intervention implemented in a school setting for obese children. Obes Res 1996; 4: 419429.
  • 137
    Muller MJ, Asbeck I, Mast M, Langnase K, Grund A. Prevention of obesity – more than an intention. Concept and first results of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25: S66S74.
  • 138
    Ignico AA, Mahon AD. The effects of a physical fitness program on low-fit children. Res Q Exerc Sport 1995; 66: 8590.
  • 139
    Hardin DS, Hebert JD, Bayden T, Dehart M, Mazur L. Treatment of childhood syndrome X. Pediatrics 1997; 100: E5.
  • 140
    Kay JP, Alemzadeh R, Langley G, D’Angelo L, Smith P, Holshouser S. Beneficial effects of metformin in normoglycemic morbidly obese adolescents. Metabolism 2001; 50: 14571461.
  • 141
    Jiang J, Xia X, Hui J, Cheng X. [Comprehensive family based behavior modification for obese children]. Chin Ment Health J 1997; 11: 237,242–244.
  • 142
    Zwaiuer K, Hayde M, Widhalm K. Effect of two hypocaloric diets on HDL-cholesterol and fatty acid composition in grossly obese adolescents. Prog Clin Biol Res 1988; 255: 231242.
  • 143
    Foger M, Bart G, Rathner G, Jager B, Fishcer H, Zollner-Neussl D. [Exercise, dietary counseling and psychological support in the treatment of obese children: a controlled study over 6 months]. Monatsschr Kinderheil 1993; 141: 491497.
  • 144
    Holcomb JD, Lira J, Kingery PM, Smith DW, Lane D, Goodway J. Evaluation of jump into action: a program to reduce the risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in school children on the Texas-Mexico border. J School Health 1998; 68: 282288.
  • 145
    Trevino RP, Pugh JA, Hernandez AE, Menchaca VD, Ramirez RR, Mendoza MB. A diabetes risk-factor prevention program. J School Health 1998; 68: 6267.
  • 146
    Ritenbaugh C, Teufel-Shone NI, Aickin MG, Joe JR, Poirier S, Dillingham DC, Johnson D, Henning S, Cole SM, Cockerham D. A lifestyle intervention improves plasma insulin levels among Native American high school youth. Prev Med 2003; 36: 309319.
  • 147
    Kahle EB, Zipf WB, Lamb DR, Horswill CA, Ward KM. Association between mild, routine exercise and improved insulin dynamics and glucose control in obese adolescents. Int J Sports Med 1996; 17: 16.
  • 148
    Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Sinclair KB, Hangen J, Ludwig DS. A reduced-glycemic load diet in the treatment of adolescent obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 773779.
  • 149
    Fardy PS, White RE, Haltiwanger-Schmitz K, Magel JR, MCDermott KJ, Clark LT, Hurster MM. Coronary disease risk factor reduction and behavior modification in minority adolescents: the PATH program. J Adolesc Health 1996; 18: 247253.
  • 150
    Figueroa-Colon R, Von Almen T, Franklin FA, Schuftan C, Suskind RM. Comparison of two hypocaloric diets in obese children. Am J Dis Child 1993; 147: 160166.
  • 151
    Lionis C, Kafatos A, Vlachonikolis J. The effects of a health education intervention program among Cretan adolescents. Prev Med 1991; 20: 685699.
  • 152
    Goodman RM, Steckler AB, Hoover S, Schwartz R. A critique of contemporary community health promotion approaches: based on a qualitative review of six programs in Maine. Am J Health Promotion 1993; 7: 208220.
  • 153
    Richard L, Potvin L, Kishchuk N, Prlic H, Green LW. Assessment of the integration of the ecological approach in health promotion programs. Am J Health Promotion 1996; 10: 318328.
  • 154
    McKinlay JB, Marceau LD. A tale of 3 tails. Am J Public Health 1999; 89: 295298.
  • 155
    Yancey AK, Ponce NA, McCarthy WJ, Fielding JE, Leslie JP, Akbar J. Population-based interventions engaging communities of color in healthy eating and active living: a review. CDC, 2004[serial online]. Available at: http://www.cdc/gov/pcd/isues/2004/jan/03.htm
  • 156
    Poland B, Green L, Rootman I. Settings for Health Promotion: Linking Theory and Practice. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA, 2000.
  • 157
    Sokols D. Translating social ecological theory into guidelines for community health promotion. Am J Health Promotion 1996; 10: 282298.
  • 158
    Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth Food and Nutrition Board, Board on Health Promotion. Preventing Childhood Obesity – Health in the Balance. Institute of Medicine: Washington, DC, 2004.
  • 159
    Davis SM, Lambert LC, Gomez Y, Skipper B. Southwest cardiovascular curriculum project: study findings for American Indian elementary students. J Health Educ 1995; 26: 572581.
  • 160
    Robinson TN, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Wilson DM, Matheson DM, Haskell WI, Pruitt LA, Powell TM, Owens AS, Thompson NS, Flint-Moore NM, Davis GJ, Emig KA, Brown RT, Rochon J, Green S, Varady A. Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: the Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 2003; 13(1 Suppl.1): S65S77.
  • 161
    Stolley MR, Fitzgibbon ML. Effects of an obesity prevention program on the eating behavior of African American mothers and daughters. Health Educ Behav 1997; 24: 152164.
  • 162
    Raines K. Overweight and Obesity in Canada: A Population Health Perspective. Canadian Institute for Health Information: Ottawa, 2004.
  • 163
    WHO Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion. Promoting Health Through Schools. World Health Organization: Geneva, 1997.
  • 164
    St Leger L. What's the place of schools in promoting health? Are we too optimistic? Health Promot Int 2004; 19: 405408.
  • 165
    Canadian Institute for Health Research. Obesity in Canada: Identifying Policy Priorities. Canadian Institute for Health Information: Ottawa, 2003.
  • 166
    Poland BD. Learning to ‘walk our talk’: the implications of sociological theory for research methodologies in health promotion. Can J Public Health 1992; 83: S31S46.
  • 167
    Story M, Sherwood NE, Himes JH, Davis M, Jacobs DR, Cartwright Y, Smyth M, Rochon J. An after-school obesity prevention program for African-American girls: the Minnesota GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 2003; 13(1 Suppl.1): S54S64.
  • 168
    Baranowski T, Simons-Morton B, Hooks P, Henske J, Tiernan K, Dunn JK, Burkhalter H, Harper J, Palmer J. A centre-based program for exercise change among Black-American families. Health Educ Q 1990; 17: 179196.
  • 169
    Nader PR, Sallis JF, Patterson TL, Abrahamson IS, Rupp JW, Senn KL, Atkins CJ, Roppe BE, Morris JA, Wallace JP. A family approach to cardiovascular risk reduction: results from the San Diego family health project. Health Educ Q 1989; 16: 299244.
  • 170
    Harris MB, Davis SM, Ford VL, Tso H. The checkerboard cardiovascular curriculum: a culturally oriented program. J School Health 1988; 58: 104107.
  • 171
    Davis S, Gomez Y, Lambert L, Skipper B. Primary prevention of obesity in American Indian children. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993; 699: 167180.
  • 172
    Gittelsohn J, Evans M, Helitzer D, Anliker J, Story M, Metcalfe L, Davis S, Iron Cloud P. Formative research in a school-based obesity prevention program for Native American school children (Pathways). Health Educ Res 1998; 13: 251265.
  • 173
    Clay DL, Mordhorst MJ, Lehn L. Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: where is the diversity? J Pediatr Psychol 2002; 27: 325337.
  • 174
    Davis S, Gomez Y, Lambert L, Skipper B. Prevention of obesity in American Indian children. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993; 699: 167180.
  • 175
    Green J, Waters E, Haikerwal A, O'Neill C, Raman S, Booth ML, Gibbons K. Social, cultural and environmental influences on child activity and eating in Austrian migrant communities. Child Care Health Dev 2003; 29: 441448.
  • 176
    Teufel NI, Ritenbaugh C. Development of a primary prevention program: insight gained in the Zuni diabetes prevention program. Clin Pediatr 1998; 37: 131141.
  • 177
    Hyman I, Guruge S, Makarchuk M, Cameron J, Micevski V. Promotion of healthy eating among new immigrant women in Ontario. Can J Diet Pract Res 2002; 63: 125129.
  • 178
    Haddock CK, Shadish WR, Klesges RC, Stein RJ. Treatments for childhood and adolescent obesity. Ann Behav Med 1994; 16: 235244.
  • 179
    LeMura LM, Maziekas MT. Factors that alter body fat, body mass, and fat free mass in pediatric obesity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34: 487496.
  • 180
    Kahn EB, Ramsey LT, Brwonson RC, Heath GW, Howzw EH, Powell KE, Sonte EJ, Rajab MW, Corson P. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 2002; 22(4S): 73107.
  • 181
    Epstein LH, Goldfield GS. Physical activity in the treatment of childhood overweight and obesity: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31(Suppl.11): S553S559.
  • 182
    Bar-or O, Baranowski T. Physical activity, adiposity, and obesity among adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994; 6: 348360.
  • 183
    Jerum A, Melnyk BM. Effectiveness of interventions to prevent obesity and obesity related complications in children and adolescents. Pediatr Nurs 2001; 27: 606610.
  • 184
    Resnicow K. School-based obesity prevention: population versus high-risk interventions. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993; 699: 154166.
  • 185
    Reilly JJ, Wilson ML, Summerbell CD, Wilson DC. Obesity: diagnosis, prevention and treatment: evidence based answers to common questions. Arch Dis Child 2002; 86: 392395.
  • 186
    Jelalian E, Saelens BE. Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: pediatric obesity. J Pediatr Psychol 1999; 24: 223248.
  • 187
    Summerbell CD, Waters E, Edmunds L, O'Meara S, Campbell K. Interventions for treating obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003; 96 pages.
  • 188
    Epstein LH, Coleman KJ, Myers MD. Exercise in treating obesity in children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 428435.
  • 189
    Statistics Canada. Children Who Become Active. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, 2003. Cat No. 82-003 Supplement to Health Report Vol 14.
  • 190
    Eid EE. Follow-up study of physical growth of children who had excessive weight gain in the first six months of life. BMJ 1970; 2: 7476.
  • 191
    Stettler N, Kumanyika S, Solomon HK, Zemel BS, Stallings VA. Rapid weight gain during infancy and obesity in young adulthood in a cohort of African Americans. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 13741378.
  • 192
    Cole TJ. Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity. BMC Pediatr 2004; 4: 616.
  • 193
    Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Bellisle F, Sempe M, Guilloud-Bataille M, Patois E. Adiposity-rebound in children: a simple indicator for predicting obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1984; 39: 129135.
  • 194
    Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Bellisle FS. The adiposity rebound: its contribution to obesity in children and adults. In: ChenC, DietzWH (eds). Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA, 2002, pp. 99113.
  • 195
    Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Guilloud-Bataille M, Avons P, Patois E, Sempe M. Tracking the development of adiposity from one month of age to adulthood. Ann Hum Biol 1987; 14: 219229.
  • 196
    Whitaker RC, Pepe MS, Wright JA, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Early adiposity rebound and the risk of adult obesity. Pediatrics 1998; 101: E5.
  • 197
    Costom BH, Shore D. Effect of a comprehensive nutritional program on the growth and ponderosity of infants. Clin Pediatr 1983; 22: 105111.
  • 198
    Bergmann KE, Bergmann RL, Von Kries R, Bohm O, Richter R, Deudenhausen JW, Wahn U. Early determinants of childhood overweight and adiposity in a birth cohort study: role of breastfeeding. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27: 162172.
  • 199
    Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman SL, Camargo CA, Berkey CS, Frazier AL, Rockett HRH, Field AE, Colditz GA. Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. JAMA 2001; 285: 24612467.
  • 200
    Harvey-Berino J, Rourke J. Obesity prevention in preschool Native-American children: a pilot study using home visiting. Obes Res 2003; 11: 606611.
  • 201
    Rasanen M, Niinikoski H, Keskinen S, Helenius H, Talvia S, Ronnemaa T, Viikari J, Simell O. Parental nutrition knowledge and nutrient intake in an atherosclerosis prevention project: the impact of child-targeted nutrition counselling. Appetite 2003; 41: 6977.
  • 202
    Niinikoski H, Viikari J, Ronnemaa T, Lapinleimu H, Jokinen E, Salo P, Seppanen R, Leino A, Tuominen J, Valimaki I, Simell O. Heart and vascular disease in the young: prospective randomized trial of low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet during the first 3 years of life: the STRIP baby project. Circulation 1996; 94: 13861393.
  • 203
    Salo P, Viikari J, Rask-Nissila L, Hamalainen M, Ronnemaa T, Seppanen R, Simell O. Effect of low-saturated fat, low-cholesterol dietary intervention on fatty acid compositions in serum lipid fractions in 5-year-old children. The STRIP project. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53: 927932.
  • 204
    Godfrey KM, Barker DJP. Fetal nutrition and adult disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(Suppl.): 1344S1352S.
  • 205
    Eriksson JG, Tuomilehto J, Winter PD, Osmond C, Barker DJP. Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ 1999; 318: 427431.
  • 206
    Araya H, Hills J, Alvina M, Vera G. Short-term satiety in preschool children: a comparison between high protein meal and a high complex carbohydrate meal. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000; 51: 119124.
  • 207
    Ray R, Lim LH, Ling SL. Obesity in preschool children: an intervention programme in primary health care in Singapore. Ann Acad Med 1994; 23: 335341.
  • 208
    Koblinsky SA, Guthrie JF, Lynch L. Evaluation of a nutrition education program for Head Start parents. J Nutr Educ 1992; 24: 413.
  • 209
    Stolley MR, Fitzgibbon ML, Dyer A, Van Horn L, Kaufer CK, Schiffer L. Hip-Hop to health Jr. an obesity prevention program for minority preschool children: baseline characteristics of participants. Prev Med 2003; 36: 320329.
  • 210
    Faith MS, Berman N, Heo M, Pietrobelli A, Gallagher D, Epstein LH, Eiden MT, Allison DB. Effects of contingent television on physical activity and television viewing in obese children. Pediatrics 2001; 107: 10431048.
  • 211
    Epstein LH, Paluch R, Consalvi A, Riordan K, Scholl T. Effects of manipulating sedentary behavior on physical activity and food intake. J Pediatr 2002; 140: 334339.
  • 212
    Baranowski T, Baranowski J, Cullen KW, Thompson DI, Nicklas TA, Zakeri IE, Rochon J. The fun, food, and fitness project (FFFP): the Baylor GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 2003; 13(1 Suppl.1): S30S39.
  • 213
    Kumanyika SK, Obarzanek E, Robinson TN, Beech BM. Phase 1 of the girls health enrichment multi-site studies (GEMS): conclusion. Ethn Dis 2003; 13(1 Suppl.1): S88S91.
  • 214
    Gittelsohn J, Davis SM, Steckler AB, Ethelbah B, Clay TE, Metcalfe L, Rock BH. Pathways: lessons learned and future directions for school-based interventions among American Indians. Prev Med 2003; 37: S107– S112.
  • 215
    Davis SM. Editorial. Prev Med 2003; 37: S1S2.
  • 216
    Golan M, Crow S. Targeting parents exclusively in the treatment of childhood obesity: long-term results. Obes Res 2004; 12: 357361.
  • 217
    Golan M, Fainaru M, Weizman A. Role of behaviour modification in the treatment of childhood obesity with the parents as the exclusive agents of change. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22: 12171224.
  • 218
    Golan M, Weizman A. Familial Approach to the Treatment of Childhood Obesity: Conceptual Model. Tel Aviv University: Tel Aviv, Israel, 2001.
  • 219
    Epstein LH, Gordy CC, Raynor HA, Beddome M, Kilanowski CK, Paluch R. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing fat and sugar intake in families at risk of childhood obesity. Obes Res 2001; 9: 171178.
  • 220
    Blaak EE, Westerterp KR, Bar-or O, Wouters LJM, Saris WHM. Total energy expenditure and spontaneous activity in relation to training in obese boys. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55: 777782.
  • 221
    Alexandrov AA, Maslennikova GY, Kulikov SM, Propirnij GA, Perova NV. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: 3-year intervention results in boys of 12 years of age. Prev Med 1992; 21: 5362.
  • 222
    Falk B, Sadres E, Constantini N, Lidor R, Eliakim A. The association between adiposity and the response to resistance training among pre- and early-pubertal boys. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2002; 15: 597606.
  • 223
    Walker LLM, Gately PJ, Bewick BM, Hill AJ. Children's weight-loss camps: psychological benefit or jeopardy? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27: 748754.
  • 224
    Gutin B, Cucuzzo N, Islam S, Smith C, Moffatt R, Pargman D. Physical training improves body composition of black obese 7- to 11-year-old girls. Obes Res 1995; 3: 305312.
  • 225
    Resnicow K, Yaroch AL, Davis A, Wang DT, Carter S, Slaughter L, Coleman D, Baranowski T. GO GIRLS: results from a nutrition and physical activity program for low-income overweight African American adolescent females. Health Educ Behav 2000; 27: 616635.
  • 226
    Wolf MC. School-based obesity intervention. [Doctoral]. Temple University; 1986.
  • 227
    Chen MY, Huang LH, Cheng NJ, Hsu CY, Hung LL, Shiao YJ. The effectiveness of health promotion counseling for overweight adolescent nursing students in Taiwan. Public Health Nurs 2001; 18: 350356.
  • 228
    Hoerr SM. The prevalence and treatment of obesity in adolescence.[PhD]. Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois: Urbana-Champaign, 1985.
  • 229
    Rountree AC. Healthy weight management in adolescent females: a school based intervention study. Chicago School Prof Psychol; 2000 (Doctoral).
  • 230
    Lungo D, Durrant E, Anderson S, Clarke M. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-1 and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females. Bringham Young University: Provo Utah, 1991. 143.
  • 231
    Ewart CK, Young DR, Hagberg JM. Effects of school-based aerobic exercise on blood pressure in adolescent girls at risk for hypertension. Am J Public Health 1998; 88: 949951.
  • 232
    Epstein LH, Wing RR, Penner BC, Kress MJ. Effects of diet and controlled exercise on weight loss in obese children. J Pediatr 1985; 107: 358361.
  • 233
    Wadden TA, Stunkard AJ, Rich L, Rubin CJ, Sweidel G, McKinney S. Obesity in Black adolescent girls: a controlled clinical trial of treatment by diet, behavior modification, and parental support. Pediatrics 1990; 85: 345352.
  • 234
    Story M, Sherwood NE, Obarzanek E, Beech BM, Baranowski J, Thompson NS, Owens AS, Mitchell M, Rochon J. Recruitment of African-American pre-adolescent girls into an obesity prevention trial: the GEMS pilot studies. Ethn Dis 2003; 13: S178S170, S186.
  • 235
    Flynn MAT. Fear of fatness and adolescent girls: implications for obesity prevention. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 1997.
  • 236
    Keel P, Fulkerson JA, Leon GR. Disordered eating precursors in pre- and early adolescent girls and boys. J Youth Adolesc 1997; 26: 203216.
  • 237
    Leon G, Fulkerson JA, Perry CL, Keel PK, Klump KL. Three to four year prospective evaluation of personality and behavioural risk factors for later disordered eating in adolescent girls and boys. J Youth Adolesc 1999; 28: 181196.
  • 238
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan PJ, Perry CL, Irving LM. Weight-related concerns and behaviors among overweight and non-overweight adolescents: implications for preventing weight-related disorders. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156: 171178.
  • 239
    National Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at:; 1996.
  • 240
    Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, Bajema CJ, Dietz WH. Longterm morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents: a follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 13501355.
  • 241
    U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Interim Projections by Age, Sex, Race and Hispanic Origin. U.S. Census Bureau. Available at: (accessed June 11, 2004).
  • 242
    Kumanyika SK. The minority factor in the obesity epidemic. Ethn Dis 2002; 12: 316319.
  • 243
    Nesbitt SD, Ashaye MO, Stettler JM, Goran MI, Parekh R, Falkner BE. Overweight as a risk factor in children: a focus on ethnicity. Ethn Dis 2004; 14: 94110.
  • 244
    Bush PJ, Zuckerman AE, Taggart VS, Theiss PK, Peleg EO, Smith SA. Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black school children: the ‘Know Your Body’ evaluation project. Health Educ Q 1989; 16: 215227.
  • 245
    Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease: five year results of a school-based intervention trial. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 10931100.
  • 246
    Walter HJ. Primary prevention of chronic disease among children: the school-based ‘Know Your Body’ intervention trials. Health Educ Q 1989; 16: 201214.
  • 247
    Dwyer T, Coonan WE, Leitch DR, Hetzel BS, Baghurst RA. An investigation of the effects of daily physical activity on the health of primary school students in South Australia. Int J Epidemiol 1983; 12: 308312.
  • 248
    Brownell KD, Kaye FS. A school based behavior modification, nutrition, education, and physical activity program for obese children. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 35: 277283.
  • 249
    Simons-Morton BG, Parcel GS, Baranowski T, Forthofer R, O'Hara N. Promoting physical activity and a healthful diet among children: results of a school-based intervention study. Am J Public Health 1991; 81: 986991.
  • 250
    Gortmaker SL, Cheung LWY, Peterson KE, Chomitz G, Cradle JH, Dart H, Fox MK, Bullock RB, Sobol AM, Colditz GA, Field AE, Laird N. Impact of a school-based interdisciplinary intervention on diet and physical activity among urban primary school children. Eat well and keep moving. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153: 975983.
  • 251
    Baranowski T, Davis M, Resnicow K, Baranowski J, Doyle C, Lin L, Smith M, Wang DT. Gimme 5 fruit, juice, and vegetables for fun and health: outcome evaluation. Health Educ Behav 2000; 27: 96111.
  • 252
    Puska P, Vartiatnen E, Pallomen U, Salonen JT, Poyhio P, Koskela K, McAlister A. The North Karelia youth project: evaluation of two years of intervention on health behavior and CVD risk factors among 13- to 15-year-old children. Prev Med 1982; 11: 550570.
  • 253
    Gutin B, Cucuzzo N, Islam S, Smith C, Stachura ME. Physical training, lifestyle education, and coronary risk factors in obese girls. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 1923.
  • 254
    Gately PJ, Cooke CB, Butterly RJ, Knight C, Carroll S. The acute effects of an 8-week diet, exercise, and educational camp program on obese children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2000; 12: 413423.
  • 255
    Widhalm K, Zwiauer KFM, Weber H. [Metabolic changes in a 3-week treatment with a low-calorie protein carbohydrate diet in massively obese adolescents]. Infusionstherapie 1983; 10: 8289.
  • 256
    Nanoff C, Zwiauer KFM, Widhalm K. [Follow-up study of severely overweight adolescents 4 years following in patient weight loss with a low calorie protein-carbohydrate diet]. Infusionstherapie 1989; 16: 141144.
  • 257
    Stauber T, Petermann F, Korb U, Bauer A, Hempel P. [In-patient educational training in obesity with stress management – a pilot study]. Pravention Rehabil 2002; 14: 179188.
  • 258
    Zwiauer KFM, Widhalm K. [Effect of two different weight reduction regimens on HDL-cholesterol concentrations in obese adolescents]. Klinische Padiatr 1987; 199: 392398.
  • 259
    Dollahite J, Hosig KW, White KA, Rodibaugh R, Holmes TM. Impact of a school-based community intervention program on nutrition knowledge and food choices in elementary school children in the rural Arkansas delta. J Nutr Educ 1998; 30: 289301.
  • 260
    Hopper CA, Munoz KD, Gruber MB, MacConnie S, Schonfeldt B, Shunk T. A school-based cardiovascular exercise and nutrition program with parent participation: an evaluation study. Children Health Care 1996; 25: 221235.
  • 261
    Marcoux MF, Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Marshall S, Armstrong CA, Goggin K. Process evaluation of a physical activity self-management program for children: SPARK. Psychol Health 1999; 14: 659677.
  • 262
    McKensie TL, Sallis JF, Kolody B, Faucette N. Long term effects of a physical education curriculum and staff development program: SPARK. Res Q Exerc Sport 1997; 68: 280291.
  • 263
    Sallis JF, McKenzie T, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Hovell M, Nader PR. Project Spark: effects of physical education on adiposity in children. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993; 699: 127136.
  • 264
    Parcel GS, Simons-Morton B, O'Hara NM, Baranowski T, Wilson B. School promotion of healthful diet and physical activity: impact on learning outcomes and self-reported behavior. Health Educ Q 1989; 16: 181199.
  • 265
    Snyder MP, Story M, Trenkner LL. Reducing fat and sodium in school lunch programs: the LUNCHPOWER! intervention study. J Am Diet Assoc 1992; 92: 1087.
  • 266
    Tamir D, Feursteine A, Brunner S, Halfon S, Reshef A, Palti H. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in childhood: changes in serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and body mass index after 2 years of intervention in Jerusalem schoolchildren age 7–9 years. Prev Med 1990; 19: 2230.
  • 267
    Coates TJ, Barofsky I, Saylor KE, Simons-Morton B, Huster W, Sereghy E, Straugh S, Jacobs H, Langford K. Modifying the snack food consumption patterns of inner city high school students: the Great Sensations study. Prev Med 1985; 14: 234247.
  • 268
    Hoerr SL, Nelson RA, Essex-Sorlie D. Treatment and follow-up of obesity in adolescent girls. J Adolesc Health Care 1988; 9: 2837.
  • 269
    Reinhardt WC, Brevard PB. Integrating the food guide pyramid and physical activity pyramid for positive dietary and physical activity behaviors in adolescents. J Am Dietetic Assoc 2002; 102(3 Suppl.): S96S99.
  • 270
    Epstein LH, Rocco A, Paluch MA, Constance C, Gordy MS, Dorn J. Decreasing sedentary behaviours in treating pediatric obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000; 154: 220226.
  • 271
    Ford BS, McDonald TE, Owens AS, Robinson TN. Primary care interventions to reduce television viewing in African American children. Am J Prev Med 2002; 22: 106109.
  • 272
    NSW Health. A Framework for Building Capacity to Improve Health. State Health Publications: Sydney, 2000.
  • 273
    Crilly R. Synthesis Research on Community Capacity: Operationalizing and Measuring Community Capacity. Health Policy Reseach Program: Ottawa, 2003.
  • 274
    National Health and Medical Research Council. Acting on Australia's Weight: Summary Report. Australian Government Publishing Service: Available at:, 1997.
  • 275
    Beirele T. Using social goals to evaluate public participation in environmental decisions. Policy Studies Rev 1999; 16: 34.
  • 276
    Laverack G, La Bonte RA. A planning framework for community empowerment goals within health promotion. Health Policy Planning 2000; 15: 255262.
  • 277
    Paxton SJ. A prevention program for disturbed eating and body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls. Health Educ Res 1993; 18: 4351.
  • 278
    Arbeit ML, Johnson CC, Mott DS, Harsha DW, Nicklas TA, Webber LS, Berenson GS. The Heart Smart Cardiovascular School Health Promotion: behavior correlates of risk factor change. Prev Med 1992; 21: 1832.
  • 279
    Burke V, Rilligan RAK, Thompson C, Taggart AC, Dunbar DL, Spencer MJ, Medland A, Gracey MP, Vandongen R, Beilin LJ. A controlled trial of health promotion programs in 11-year-olds using physical activity ‘enrichment’ for higher risk children. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 840848.
  • 280
    Eikner CA. An Integrated Approach to Weight Control in an Elementary School Setting. College of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Texas Woman's University: Denton, TX, 1983.
  • 281
    Kater J, Rohwer J, Londre K. Evaluation of an upper elementary school program to prevent body image, eating and weight concerns. J School Health 2002; 72: 199204.
  • 282
    Mo-suwan L, Pongprapai S, Junjana C, Puetpaiboon A. Effects of a controlled trial of a school-based exercise program on the obesity indexes of preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 10061011.
  • 283
    Sahota P, Rudolf MCJ, Dixey R, Hill AJ, Barth JH, Cade J. Evaluation of implementation and effect of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity. BMJ 2001; 323: 10271029.
  • 284
    Siegal JA, Camaione DN, Manfredi TG. The effects of upper body resistance training on prepubescent children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1989; 1: 145154.
  • 285
    Stephens MB, Wentz SW. Supplemental fitness activities and fitness in urban elementary school classrooms. Fam Med 1998; 30: 220223.
  • 286
    Sung RY, Yu CW, Chang SK, Mo SW, Woo KS, Lam CW. Effects of dietary intervention and strength training on blood lipid level in obese children. Arch Dis Child 2002; 86: 407410.
  • 287
    Vandongen R, Jenner DA, Thompson C, Taggart AC, Spickett EE, Burke V, Beilin LJ, Milligan RA, Dunbar DL. A controlled evaluation of a fitness and nutrition intervention program on cardiovascular health in 10- to 12-year-old children. Prev Med 1995; 24: 922.
  • 288
    Cooper R, Van Horn L, Liu K, Trevisan M, Nanas S, Ueshima H, Larbi E, Yu C-S, Sempos C, LeGrady D, Stamler J. A randomized trial on the effect of decreased dietary sodium intake on blood pressure in adolescents. J Hypertens 1984; 2: 361366.
  • 289
    Frenn M, Malin S, Bansal NK. Stage-based interventions for low-fat diet with middle school students. J Pediatr Nurs 2003; 18: 3645.
  • 290
    Killen JD, Telch MJ, Robinson TN, Maccoby N, Taylor B, Farquhar JW. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction for tenth graders: a multiple-factor school-based approach. JAMA 1988; 260: 17281733.
  • 291
    McMurray RG, Harrell JS, Bangdiwala SI, Bradley CB, Deng S, Levine A. A school-based intervention can reduce body fat and blood pressure in young adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2002; 31: 125132.
  • 292
    Sadowsky HS, Sawdon JM, Sheiner ME, Sticklin AM. Eight week moderate intensity exercise intervention elicits body composition change in adolescents. Cardiopulm Phys Ther J 1999; 10: 3844.
  • 293
    Israel AC, Solotar LC, Zimand E. An investigation of two parental involvement roles in the treatment of obese children. Int J Eat Dis 1990; 9: 557564.
  • 294
    Katch V, Becque MD, Marks C, Moorehead C, Rocchini AP. Basal metabolism of obese adolescents: inconsistent diet and exercise effects. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 48: 565569.
  • 295
    Lozano GB, Martin FM, Marrero MAC, Quesada JJM, Martinez ED, Canedo CA. [Comparative study of medical advice and cognitive-behavioral group therapy in the treatment of child-adolescent obesity]. An Esp Pediatr 1997; 47: 135143.
  • 296
    Nader PR, Baranowski T, Vanderpool NA, Dunn K, Dworkin R, Ray L. The family health project: cardiovascular risk reduction education for children and parents. Dev Behav Pediatr 1983; 4: 310.
  • 297
    Owens S, Gutin B, Allison J, Riggs S, Ferguson M, Litaker M, Thompson W. Effect of physical training on total and visceral fat in obese children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31: 143150.
  • 298
    Brownell KD, Kelman JH, Stunkard AJ. Treatment of obese children with and without their mothers: changes in weight and blood pressure. Pediatrics 1983; 71: 515523.
  • 299
    Coates TJ, Jeffery RW, Slinkard LA, Killen JD, Danaher BG. Frequency of contact and monetary reward in weight loss, lipid change, and blood pressure reduction with adolescents. Behav Ther 1982; 13: 175185.
  • 300
    Epstein LH, Wing RR, Koeske R, Ossip D, Beck S. A comparison of lifestyle change and programmed aerobic exercise on weight and fitness changes in obese children. Behav Ther 1982; 13: 651665.
  • 301
    Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Saelens BE, Ernst MM, Wilfley DE. Changes in eating disorder symptoms with pediatric obesity treatment. J Pediatr 2001; 139: 5865.
  • 302
    Epstein LH, Valoski AM, McCurley J. Effect of weight loss by obese children on long-term growth. Am J Dis Child 1993; 147: 10761080.
  • 303
    Epstein LH, Mckenzie SJ, Valoski AM, Klein KR, Wing RR. Effects of mastery criteria and contingent reinforcement for family-based child weight control. Addict Behav 1994; 19: 135145.
  • 304
    Ferguson MA, Gutin B, Le N-A, Karp W, Litaker M, Humphries M, Okuyama T, Riggs S, Owens S. Effects of exercise training and its cessation on components of the insulin resistance syndrome in obese children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999; 22: 889895.
  • 305
    Ferrer Lorente B, Fenollosa Entrena B, Ortega Serrano S, Gonzalez Diaz P, Dalmau Serra J. [Multidisciplinary treatment of pedicatric obesity: results of 213 patients]. An Esp Pediatr 1997; 46: 812.
  • 306
    Ferrer Gonzalez P, Belda Galiana I, Segarra Aznar FM, Fenollosa Entrena B, Dalmau Serra J. [The development of lipid and anthropometric parameters in the treatment of pre-pubertal obese patients]. An Esp Pediatr 1998; 48: 267273.
  • 307
    Golan M, Weizman A, Apter A, Fainaru M. Parents as the exclusive agents of change in the treatment of childhood obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67: 11301135.
  • 308
    Graves T, Meyers AW, Clark L. An evaluation of parental problem-solving training in the behavioral treatment of childhood obesity. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988; 56: 246250.
  • 309
    Gutin B, Riggs S, Ferguson M, Owens S. Description and process evaluation of a physical training program for obese children. Res Q Exerc Sport 1999; 70: 6569.
  • 310
    Korsten-Reck U, Bauer S, Keul J. [Exercise and nutrition: an outpatient program for adipose children long term experiences]. Padiatr Padologie 1993; 28: 145152.
  • 311
    Maffeis C, Schutz Y, Pinelli L. Postprandial thermogenesis in obese children before and after weight reduction. Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46: 577583.
  • 312
    Mellin LM, Slinkard LA, Irwin CEJ. Adolescent obesity intervention: validation of the SHAPEDOWN Program. J Am Diet Assoc 1987; 87: 333338.
  • 313
    Rocchini AP, Katch V, Anderson J, Hinderliter J, Becque D, Martin M, Marks C. Blood pressure in obese adolescents: effect of weight loss. Pediatrics 1988; 82: 1623.
  • 314
    Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Wifley DE, Patrick K, Cella JA, Buchta R. Behavioral weight control for overweight adolescents initiated in primary care. Obes Res 2002; 10: 2232.
  • 315
    Sothern MS, Udall JN, Suskind RM, Vargas A, Blecker U. Weight loss and growth velocity in obese children after very low calorie diet, exercise, and behavior modification. Acta Pediatr 2000; 89: 10361043.
  • 316
    Obesity Task Force. Obesity. Blackwell Science: Oxford, UK, 1999.
  • 317
    Ebbeling CB, Rodriguez NR. Effects of exercise combined with diet therapy on protein utilization in obese children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31: 378385.
  • 318
    Caroli M, Chiarappa S, Borrelli R, Martinelli R. Efficiency and safety of using protein sparing modified fast in pediatric and adolescent obesity treatment. Nutr Res 1992; 12: 13251334.
  • 319
    Jacobson MS, Copperman N, Haas T, Shenker IR. Adolescent obesity and cardiovascular risk: a rational approach to management. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993; 699: 220229.
  • 320
    Peng XF, Kang JQ. [Study on the endothelin and lipid changes in simple obesity children and effect of aerobic training]. Chin J Sports Med 2000; 19: 167170.
  • 321
    Levine MD, Ringham RM, Kalarchian M, Wisniewski L, Marcus MD. Is family-based behavioral weight control appropriate for severe pediatric obesity? Int J Eat Dis 2001; 30: 318328.
  • 322
    Stewart KJ, Lipis PH, Seemans CM, McFarland L, Weinhofer JJ, Brown CS. Heart healthy knowledge, food patterns, fatness, and cardiac risk factors in children receiving nutrition education. J Health Educ 1995; 26: 381387.
  • 323
    National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Hearts N’Parks Y2K: Research and Evaluation Report. National Institutes of Health. Available at:; 2000.
  • 324
    Petchers MK, Hirsch EZ, Bloch BA. A longitudinal study of the impact of a school heart health curriculum. J Community Health 1988; 13: 8594.
  • 325
    Hennekens CH, Buring JE. Epidemiology in Medicine. Little Brown and Company: Boston, MA, 1987.
  • 326
    Murray DM, Varnell SP, Blistein JL. Design and analysis of group-randomized trials: a review of recent methodological developments. Am J Public Health 2004; 94: 423432.
  • 327
    Flynn MA. Community Prevention of Obesity in Canada: the Technical Document. Calgary Health Region: Calgary, 2003.
  • 328
    Ryan YM, Gibney MJ, Flynn MA. The pursuit of thinness: a study of Dublin schoolgirls aged 15 years. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22: 486488.
  • 329
    Strauss RS, Mir HM. Smoking and weight loss attempts in overweight and normal-weight adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25: 13811385.
  • 330
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Martin SL, Story M. School-based programs for obesity prevention: what do adolescents recommend? Am J Health Promotion 2000; 14: 232235.
  • 331
    CDC. Physical activity levels among children aged 9–13 years. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003; 52: 785788.
  • 332
    Story M. School-based approaches for preventing and treating obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999; 23(Suppl.2): S43– S51.
  • 333
    Sallis JF, Chen AH, Castro CM. School-Based Interventions for Childhood Obesity. In: CheungLWY, RichmondJB, editors. Child health, nutrition and physical activity.Human Kinetics: Champaign; 1995, pp. 179204.
  • 334
    Kumanyika SK, Story M, Beech BM, Sherwood NE, Baranowski J, Powell TM, Cullen KW, Owens AS. Collaborative planning for formative assessment and cultural appropriateness in the Girls Health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): a retrospection. Ethn Dis 2003; 13(1 Suppl.1): S15S29.