• 1
    Marshall SJ, Gorely T, Biddle SJH. A descriptive epidemiology of screen-based media use in youth: a review and critique. J Adolesc 2006; 29: 333349.
  • 2
    Dietz WH Jr, Gortmaker SL, Do we fatten our children at the television set? Obesity and television viewing in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 1985; 75: 807812.
  • 3
    Bronfenbrenner U. The impact of broadcasting. In: ClayreJ (ed.). The Impact of Broadcasting. Compton Russell: London, 1973, pp. 277302.
  • 4
    McCreary DR, Sadava SW. Television viewing and self-perceived health, weight, and physical fitness: evidence for the Cultivation Hypothesis. J Appl Soc Psychol 1999; 29: 23422361.
  • 5
    Gortmaker SL, Must A, Sobol AM, Peterson K, Colditz GA, Dietz WH. Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the united states, 1986–1990. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996; 150: 356362.
  • 6
    Robinson TN. Television viewing and childhood obesity. Childhood Adolesc Obes 2001; 48: 10171025.
  • 7
    Marshall SJ, Biddle SJH, Gorely T, Cameron N, Murdey I. Relationships between media use, body fatness and physical activity in children and youth: a meta-analysis. Int J Obes 2004; 28: 12381246.
  • 8
    Dietz WH, Gortmaker SL. TV or not TV: fat is the question. Pediatrics 1993; 91: 499501.
  • 9
    Vandewater EA, Shim MS, Caplovitz AG. Linking obesity and activity level with children’s television and video game use. J Adolesc 2004; 27: 7185.
  • 10
    Trost SG. Objective measurement of physical activity in youth: current issues, future directions. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2001; 1: 3236.
  • 11
    DuRant RH, Baranowski T, Johnson M, Thompson WO. The relationship among television watching, physical-activity, and body-composition of young-children. Pediatrics 1994; 94: 449455.
  • 12
    DuRant RH, Thompson WO, Johnson M, Baranowski T. The relationship among television watching, physical activity, and body composition of 5- or 6-year-old children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1996; 8: 1526.
  • 13
    Borzekowski DLG, Robinson TN. Viewing the viewers: ten video cases of children’s television viewing behaviors. J Broadcast Electron Media 1999; 43: 506528.
  • 14
    Anderson DR, Field DE, Collins PA, Lorch EP, Nathan JG. Estimates of young children’s time with television: a methodological comparison of parent reports with time-lapse video home observation. Child Dev 1985; 56: 13451357.
  • 15
    Landis J, Koch G. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 1977; 33: 159174.
  • 16
    Giampietro O, Virgone E, Carneglia L, Griesi E, Calvi D, Matteucci E. Anthropometric indices of school children and familiar risk factors. Prev Med 2002; 35: 492498.
  • 17
    Armstrong CA, Sallis JF, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, McKenzie TL. Children’s television viewing, body fat, and physical fitness. Am J Health Promot 1998; 12: 363368.
  • 18
    Gordon-Larsen P, Adair LS, Popkin BM. Ethnic differences in physical activity and inactivity patterns and overweight status. Obes Res 2002; 10: 141149.
  • 19
    Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Popkin BM. Longitudinal physical activity and sedentary behavior trends: adolescence to adulthood. Am J Prev Med 2004; 27: 277283.
  • 20
    Nelson MC, Gordon-Larsen P, Adair LS, Popkin BM. Adolescent physical activity and sedentary behavior – patterning and long-term maintenance. Am J Prev Med 2005; 28: 259266.
  • 21
    Horn OK, Paradis G, Potvin L, Macaulay AC, Desrosiers S. Correlates and predictors of adiposity among Mohawk children. Prev Med 2001; 33: 274281.
  • 22
    Robinson TN. Reducing children’s television viewing to prevent obesity – a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999; 282: 15611567.
  • 23
    Robinson TN, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Wilson DM, Matheson DM, Haskell WL, Pruitt LA, Powell TM, Owens AS, Thompson NS, Flint-Moore NM, Davis GJ, Emig KA, Brown RT, Rochon J, Green S, Varady A. Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: the Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 2003; 13: S65S77.
  • 24
    Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Nader PR, Broyles SL, Berry CC, Taras HL. Home environmental influences on children’s television watching from early to middle childhood. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2002; 23: 127132.
  • 25
    Shannon B, Peacock J, Brown MJ. Body fatness, television viewing and calorie-intake of a sample of Pennsylvania 6th grade children. J Nutr Educ 1991; 23: 262268.
  • 26
    McMurray RG, Harrell JS, Deng SB, Bradley CB, Cox LM, Bangdiwala SI. The influence of physical activity, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity on the weight status of adolescents. Obes Res 2000; 8: 130139.
  • 27
    Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Gillman MW, Field AE, Colditz GA. Longitudinal study of skipping breakfast and weight change in adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27: 12581266.
  • 28
    Berkey CS, Rockett HRH, Field AE, Gillman MW, Frazier AL, Camargo CA, Colditz GA. Activity, dietary intake, and weight changes in a longitudinal study of preadolescent and adolescent boys and girls. Pediatrics 2000; 105: e56 (electronic article).
  • 29
    Berkey CS, Rockett HRH, Gillman MW, Colditz GA. One-year changes in activity and in inactivity among 10-to 15-year-old boys and girls: Relationship to change in body mass index. Pediatrics 2003; 111: 836843.
  • 30
    Borzekowski DLG, Robinson TN, Killen JD. Does the camera add 10 pounds? Media use, preceived importance of appearance, and weight concerns among teenage girls. J Adolesc Health 2000; 26: 3641.
  • 31
    Boynton-Jarrett R, Thomas TN, Peterson KE, Wiecha J, Sobol AM, Gortmaker SL. Impact of television viewing patterns on fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents. Pediatrics 2003; 112: 13211326.
  • 32
    Dennison BA, Erb TA, Jenkins PL. Television viewing and television in bedroom associated with overweight risk among low-income preschool children. Pediatrics 2002; 109: 10281035.
  • 33
    Gortmaker SL, Peterson K, Wiecha J, Sobol AM, Dixit S, Fox MK, Laird N. Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153: 409418.
  • 34
    Hernandez B, Gortmaker SL, Colditz GA, Peterson KE, Laird NM, Parra-Cabrera S. Association of obesity with physical activity, television programs and other forms of video viewing among children in Mexico City. Int J Obes 1999; 23: 845854.
  • 35
    Janz KF, Mahoney LT. Maturation, gender, and video game playing are related to physical activity intensity in adolescents: the muscatine study. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1997; 9: 353363.
  • 36
    Patrick K, Norman GJ, Calfas KJ, Sallis JF, Zabinski MF, Rupp J, Cella J. Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for overweight in adolescence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004; 158: 385390.
  • 37
    Phillips SM, Bandini LG, Naumova EN, Cyr H, Colclough S, Dietz WH, Must A. Energy-dense snack food intake in adolescence: longitudinal relationship to weight and fatness. Obes Res 2004; 12: 461472.
  • 38
    Robinson TN, Killen JD. Ethnic and gender differences in the relationships between television viewing and obesity, physical activity, and dietary fat intake. J Health Educ 1995; 26: S91S98.
  • 39
    Schmitz KH, Harnack L, Fulton JE, Jacobs DR, Gao SJ, Lytle LA, Van Coevering P. Reliability and validity of a brief questionnaire to assess television viewing and computer use by middle school children. J Sch Health 2004; 74: 370377.
  • 40
    Utter J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Jeffery R, Story M. Couch potatoes or french fries: are sedentary behaviors associated with body mass index, physical activity, and dietary behaviors among adolescents? J Am Diet Assoc 2003; 103: 12981305.
  • 41
    Wiecha JL, Sobol AM, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Household television access: associations with screen time, reading, and homework among youth. Ambul Pediatr 2001; 1: 244251.
  • 42
    Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Boyce WF, King MA, Pickett W. Overweight and obesity in Canadian adolescents and their associations with dietary habits and physical activity patterns. J Adolesc Health 2004; 35: 360367.
  • 43
    Pate RR, Trost SG, Dowda M, Ott AE, Ward DS, Saunders R, Felton G. Tracking of physical activity, physical inactivity, and health-related physical fitness in rural youth. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1999; 11: 364376.
  • 44
    Pate RR, Trost SG, Felton GM, Ward DS, Dowda M, Saunders R. Correlates of physical activity behavior in rural youth. Res Q Exerc Sport 1997; 68: 241248.
  • 45
    Brown TD, Holland BV. Test-retest reliability of the self-assessed physical activity checklist. Percept Mot Skills 2004; 99: 10991102.
  • 46
    Myers L, Strikmiller PK, Webber LS, Berenson GS. Physical and sedentary activity in school children grades 5–8: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 852859.
  • 47
    Prochaska JJ, Sallis JF, Griffith B, Douglas J. Physical activity levels of Barbadian youth and comparison to a US sample. Int J Behav Med 2002; 9: 360372.
  • 48
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan PJ, Tharp T, Rex J. Factors associated with changes in physical activity – a cohort study of inactive adolescent girls. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 803810.
  • 49
    Guillaume M, Lapidus L, Bjorntorp P, Lambert A. Physical activity, obesity, and cardiovascular risk factors in children. The Belgian Luxembourg Child Study II. Obes Res 1997; 5: 549556.
  • 50
    Feldman DE, Barnett T, Shrier I, Rossignol M, Abenhaim L. Is physical activity differentially associated with different types of sedentary pursuits? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 797802.
  • 51
    Giammattei J, Blix G, Marshak HH, Wollitzer AO, Pettitt DJ. Television watching and soft drink consumption – associations with obesity in 11-to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 882886.
  • 52
    Overby NC, Lillegaard ITL, Johansson L, Andersen LF. High intake of added sugar among Norwegian children and adolescents. Public Health Nutr 2004; 7: 285293.
  • 53
    Treuth MS, Sherwood NE, Baranowski T, Butte NF, Jacobs DR, McClanahan B, Gao S, Rochon J, Zhou A, Robinson TN, Pruitt L, Haskell W, Obarzanek E. Physical activity self-report and accelerometry measures from the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies. Prev Med 2004; 38: S43S49.
  • 54
    Tudor-Locke C, Ainsworth BE, Adair LS, Popkin BM. Physical activity in Filipino youth: the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Int J Obes 2003; 27: 181190.
  • 55
    Francis LA, Lee Y, Birch LL. Parental weight status and girls’ television viewing, snacking, and body mass indexes. Obes Res 2003; 11: 143151.
  • 56
    Janz KF, Dawson JD, Mahoney LT. Tracking physical fitness and physical activity from childhood to adolescence: the Muscatine study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32: 12501257.
  • 57
    Manios Y, Yiannakouris N, Papoutsakis C, Moschonis G, Magkos F, Skenderi K, Zampelas A. Behavioral and physiological indices related to BMI in a cohort of primary schoolchildren in Greece. Am J Hum Biol 2004; 16: 639647.
  • 58
    Klein-Platat C, Oujaa M, Wagner A, Haan MC, Arveiler D, Schlienger JL, Simon C. Physical activity is inversely related to waist circumference in 12-y-old French adolescents. Int J Obes 2005; 29: 914.
  • 59
    Wagner A, Klein-Platat C, Arveiler D, Haan MC, Schlienger J, Simon C. Parent-child physical activity relationships in 12-year old French students do not depend on family socioeconomic status. Diabetes Metab 2004; 30: 359366.
  • 60
    Robinson TN, Hammer LD, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Wilson DM, Hayward C, Taylor CB. Does television viewing increase obesity and reduce physical-activity – cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses among adolescent girls. Pediatrics 1993; 91: 273280.
  • 61
    Marshall SJ, Biddle SJH, Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Conway TL. Clustering of sedentary Behaviors and physical activity among youth: a cross-national study. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2002; 14: 401417.
  • 62
    Weston AT, Richard P, Russell P. Validation of an instrument for measurement of physical activity in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29: 138143.
  • 63
    Heath GW, Pratt M, Warren CW, Kann L. Physical-activity patterns in American high-school-students – results from the 1990 youth risk behavior survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1994; 148: 11311136.
  • 64
    Pate RR, Heath GW, Dowda M, Trost SG. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Am J Public Health 1996; 86: 15771581.
  • 65
    Burdette HL, Whitaker RC, Kahn RS, Harvey-Berino J. Association of maternal obesity and depressive symptoms with television-viewing time in low-income preschool children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 894899.
  • 66
    Certain LK, Kahn RS. Prevalence, correlates, and trajectory of television viewing among infants and toddlers. Pediatrics 2002; 109: 634642.
  • 67
    Kimm SYS, Obarzanek E, Barton BA, Aston CE, Similo SL, Morrison JA, Sabry ZI, Schreiber GB, McMahon RP. Race, socioeconomic status, and obesity in 9- to 10 year-old girls: the NHLBI Growth and Health Study. Ann Epidemiol 1996; 6: 266275.
  • 68
    Obarzanek E, Schreiber GB, Crawford PB, Goldman SR, Barrier PM, Frederick MM, Lakatos E. Energy-intake and physical-activity in relation to indexes of body-fat – the national-heart, -lung, and blood-institute growth and health study. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60: 1522.
  • 69
    Perez CE. Children who become active. Health Rep 2003; 14: 1728.
  • 70
    Tremblay MS, Willms JD. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity? Int J Obes 2003; 27: 11001105.
  • 71
    Vilhjalmsson R, Thorlindsson T. Factors related to physical activity: a study of adolescents. Soc Sci Med 1998; 47: 665675.
  • 72
    Andersen RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, Cheskin LJ, Pratt M. Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children – results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 1998; 279: 938942.
  • 73
    Crespo CJ, Smit E, Troiano RP, Bartlett SJ, Macera CA, Andersen RE. Television watching, energy intake, and obesity in US children: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001; 155: 360365.
  • 74
    Dowda M, Ainsworth BE, Addy CL, Saunders R, Riner W. Environmental influences, physical activity, and weight status in 8-to 16-year-olds. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001; 155: 711717.
  • 75
    Forshee RA, Anderson PA, Storey ML. The role of beverage consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and demographics on body mass index of adolescents. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2004; 55: 463478.
  • 76
    Romieu I, Mannino DM, Redd SC, McGeehin MA. Dietary intake, physical activity, body mass index, and childhood asthma in the third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III). Pediatr Pulmonol 2004; 38: 3142.
  • 77
    Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Kilanowski CK, Raynor HA. The effect of reinforcement or stimulus control to reduce sedentary behavior in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Health Psychol 2004; 23: 371380.
  • 78
    Epstein LH, Valoski AM, Vara LS, McCurley J, Wisniewski L, Kalarchian MA, Klein KR, Shrager LR. Effects of decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing activity on weight change in obese children. Health Psychol 1995; 14: 109115.
  • 79
    Katzmarzyk PT, Malina RM. Contribution of organized sports participation to estimated daily energy expenditure in youth. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1998; 10: 378386.
  • 80
    Myrtek M, Scharff C, Brugner G, Muller W. Physiological, behavioral, and psychological effects associated with television viewing in schoolboys: an exploratory study. J Early Adolesc 1996; 16: 301323.
  • 81
    McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Nader PR, Broyles SL, Nelson JA. Anglo-American and Mexican-American preschoolers at home and at recess – activity patterns and environmental-influences. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1992; 13: 173180.
  • 82
    Sallis JF, Strikmller PK, Harsha DW, Feldman HA, Ehlinger S, Stone EJ, Williston J, Woods S. Validation of interviewer- and self-administered physical activity checklists for fifth grade students. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 840851.
  • 83
    Epstein LH, Roemmich JN, Paluch RA, Raynor HA. Physical activity as a substitute for sedentary behavior in youth. Ann Behav Med 2005; 29: 200209.
  • 84
    Christakis DA, Ebee BE, Rivara FP, Zimmerman FJ. Television, video, and computer game usage in children under 11 years of age. J Pediatr 2004; 145: 652656.
  • 85
    Janz KF, Levy SM, Burns TL, Torner JC, Willing MC, Warren JJ. Fatness, physical activity, and television viewing in children during the adiposity rebound period: the Iowa bone development study. Prev Med 2002; 35: 563571.
  • 86
    Kaur H, Choi WS, Mayo MS, Harris KJ. Duration of television watching is associated with increased body mass index. J Pediatr 2003; 143: 506511.
  • 87
    Levin S, Martin MW, Riner WE. TV viewing habits and body mass index among South Carolina head start children. Ethn Dis 2004; 14: 336339.
  • 88
    French SA, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D, Fulkerson JA, Hannan P. Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables. Int J Obes 2001; 25: 18231833.
  • 89
    Kain J, Andrade M. Characteristics of the diet and patterns of physical activity in obese Chilean preschoolers. Nutr Res 1999; 19: 203215.
  • 90
    Hanley AJG, Harris SB, Gittelsohn J, Wolever TMS, Saksvig B, Zinman B. Overweight among children and adolescents in a Native Canadian community: prevalence and associated factors. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 693700.
  • 91
    Dennison BA, Russo TJ, Burdick PA, Jenkins PL. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004; 158: 170176.
  • 92
    Gortmaker SL, Cheung LWY, Peterson KE, Chomitz G, Cradle JH, Dart H, Fox MK, Bullock RB, Sobol AM, Colditz G, Field AE, Laird N. Impact of a school-based interdisciplinary intervention on diet and physical activity among urban primary school children – eat well and keep moving. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153: 975983.
  • 93
    Maffeis C, Talamini G, Tato L. Influence of diet, physical activity and parents’ obesity on children’s adiposity: a four-year longitudinal study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22: 758764.
  • 94
    Ozdirenc M, Ozcan A, Akin F, Gelecek N. Physical fitness in rural children compared with urban children in Turkey. Pediatr Int 2005; 47: 2631.
  • 95
    Proctor MH, Moore LL, Gao D, Cupples LA, Bradlee ML, Hood MY, Ellison RC. Television viewing and change in body fat from preschool to early adolescence: the Framingham Children’s Study. Int J Obes 2003; 27: 827833.
  • 96
    Signorielli N, Lears M. Television and children’s conceptions of nutrition: unhealthy messages. Health Commun 1992; 4: 245257.
  • 97
    Stettler N, Signer TM, Suter PM. Electronic games and environmental factors associated with childhood obesity in Switzerland. Obes Res 2004; 12: 896903.
  • 98
    Wake M, Hesketh K, Waters E. Television, computer use and body mass index in Australian primary school children. J Paediatr Child Health 2003; 39: 130134.
  • 99
    Wolf AM, Gortmaker SL, Cheung L, Gray HM, Herzog DB, Colditz GA. Activity, inactivity, and obesity: racial, ethnic, and age differences among schoolgirls. Am J Public Health 1993; 83: 16251627.
  • 100
    Yannakoulia M, Karayiannis D, Terzidou M, Kokkevi A, Sidossis LS. Nutrition-related habits of Greek adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004; 58: 580586.
  • 101
    Eisenmann JC, Bartee RT, Wang MQ. Physical activity, TV viewing, and weight in US youth: 1999 youth risk behavior survey. Obes Res 2002; 10: 379385.
  • 102
    Bungum TJ, Vincent ML. Determinants of physical activity among female adolescents. Am J Prev Med 1997; 13: 115122.
  • 103
    Lowry R, Wechsler H, Galuska DA, Fulton JE, Kann L. Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among US high school students: Differences by race, ethnicity, and gender. J Sch Health 2002; 72: 413421.
  • 104
    McVeigh JA, Norris SA, De Wet T. The relationship between socio-economic status and physical activity patterns in South African children. Acta Paediatr 2004; 93: 982988.
  • 105
    Page RM, Hammermeister J, Scanlan A, Allen O. Psychosocial and health-related characteristics of adolescent television viewers. Child Study J 1996; 26: 319331.
  • 106
    Pinhey TK, Okinaka AM. Exploring the purging behavior of Asian-Pacific adolescents in Guam: does heavy television viewing make a difference? Deviant Behav 2004; 25: 2741.
  • 107
    Van den Bulck J. Is television bad for your health? Behavior and body image of the adolescent ‘couch potato’. J Youth Adolesc 2000; 29: 273288.
  • 108
    Van den Bulck J, Van Mierlo J. Energy intake associated with television viewing in adolescents, a cross sectional study. Appetite 2004; 43: 181184.
  • 109
    Krassas GE, Tzotzas T, Tsametis C, Konstantinidis T. Determinants of body mass index in Greek children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001; 14(Suppl. 5): 13271333;discussion 1365.
  • 110
    Robinson JP, Godbey G. Time for Life 1997: The Surprising Ways Americans Use Their Time. The Pennsylvania State University Press: Pennsylvania, 1997.
  • 111
    Kaiser Foundation Report, The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity. [WWW document]. URL (accessed August 2004).