• 1
    World Health Organisation. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Series 894. World Health Organisation: Geneva, 2000.
  • 2
    National Audit Office. Tackling Obesity in England. Stationery Office: London, 2001.
  • 3
    Donaldson L. Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer for England 2002. Department of Health: London, 2003.
  • 4
    Health Committee of the House of Commons. Obesity. Third Report of Session 2003–04, HC 23-1, Vol. 1. The Stationery Office: London, 2004.
  • 5
    Lang T, Dowler E, Hunter D. Review of the Scottish Diet Action Plan: Progress and Impacts 1996–2005. Report 2005/2006 RE036. NHS Scotland: Edinburgh, 2006.
  • 6
    Scottish Executive. Scottish Health Survey 2003. Scottish Executive: Edinburgh, 2005.
  • 7
    National Audit Office. Health of the Nation: A Progress Report. HC 458 1995/96. Comptroller and Auditor General: London, 1996.
  • 8
    Department of Health. Health Profile of England. Department of Health: London, 2006, p. 112.
  • 9
    Department of Health. Health Challenge England: Next Steps for Choosing Health. Department of Health: London, 2006, p. 40.
  • 10
    Department of Health. Local Area Agreements and Local Public Service Agreements. Department of Health: London, 2005.
  • 11
    Chinn S, Rona RJ. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity in three cross-sectional studies of British children 1974–94. BMJ 2001; 322: 2426.
  • 12
    Commission of the European Communities. Promoting Healthy Diets and Physical Activity: A European Dimension for the Prevention of Overweight, Obesity and Chronic Diseases. Green Paper, Brussels, 08.12.2005 COM(2005) 637 final. CEC: Brussels, 2005.
  • 13
    Dunman J. Agriculture: Capitalist and Socialist. Lawrence & Wishart: London, 1975.
  • 14
    Brandt K. The Reconstruction of World Agriculture. George Allen & Unwin: London, 1945.
  • 15
    Body R. Agriculture: The Triumph and the Shame. Temple Smith: London, 1982.
  • 16
    Schlosser E. Fast Food Nation. Houghton Mifflin: New York, 2001.
  • 17
    Critser G. Fatland: How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World. Penguin: London, 2003.
  • 18
    Brownell KD, Horgen KB. Food Fight. McGraw-Hill: New York, 2003, p. 352.
  • 19
    Kuchler F, Golan E. Is there a role for government in reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity? Choices Magazine (a publication of the American Agricultural. Economics Association). 2004; 19: 4145.
  • 20
    Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R. Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. A report to the World Health Organisation. Obes Rev 2004; 5(Suppl. 1): 485.
  • 21
    Robertson A, Tirado C, Lobstein T, Jermini M, Knai C, Jensen JH, Ferro–Luzzi A, James WPT. Food and Health in Europe: A New Basis for Action. World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen, 2004.
  • 22
    Department of Health. Health Challenge England: Obesity (factsheet). 277472/F 1p 1k Oct 06 (FMP). Department of Health: London, 2006, p. 4.
  • 23
    Wanless D. Securing Our Future Health: Taking a Long-Term View. HM Treasury: London, 2002.
  • 24
    James WPT, Rigby N, Leach R. The obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome and future prevention strategies. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2004; 11: 38.
  • 25
    Peña M, Bacallao J. Obesity and Poverty: A New Public Health Challenge. Pan American Health Organisation of the WHO (PAHO): Washington, DC, 2000.
  • 26
    Jain A. Treating obesity in individuals and populations. BMJ 2005; 331: 13871390.
  • 27
    Lancet T. The catastrophic failures of public health. Lancet 2006; 363: 745.
  • 28
    Swinburn B, Gill T, Kumanyika S. Obesity prevention: a proposed framework for translating evidence into action. Obes Rev 2005; 6: 2333.
  • 29
    Swinburn B, Egger G. Preventive strategies against weight gain and obesity. Obes Rev 2002; 3: 289301.
  • 30
    Lang T, Rayner G. Obesity: a growing issue for european policy? J Eur Soc Policy 2005; 15: 301327.
  • 31
    Rayner G, Hawkes C, Lang T, Bellow W. Trade liberalisation and the diet and nutrition transition: a public health response. Health Promot Int 2007 (in press).
  • 32
    Byrne D. EU and the obesity epidemic. Eurohealth 2003; 9: 1617, Spring.
  • 33
    Puska P, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A, Vartiainen E (eds). The North Karelia Project: 20 Years Results and Experiences. National Public Health Institute and World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe: Helsinki, 1995.
  • 34
    Lang T, Rayner G, Kaelin E. The Food Industry, Diet, Physical Activity and Health. A Review of Reported Commitments and Practice of 25 of the World’s Largest Food Companies, Measured Against the Goals of the World Health Organisation Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Centre for Food Policy. City University: London, 2006.
  • 35
    Marmot M. Evidence-based policy or policy-based evidence? BMJ 2004; 328: 906907.
  • 36
    Leicester A, Windmeijer F. The ‘Fat Tax’: Economic Incentives to Reduce Obesity. Institute for Fiscal Studies: London, 2004.
  • 37
    Strnad J. Conceptualizing the ‘Fat Tax’: The Role of Food Taxes in Developed Economies. Working Paper September 2002, in Working Paper 2004. Stanford Law School: Palo Alto, CA, 2004.
  • 38
    Petticrew M, Whitehead M, Macintyre SJ, Graham H, Egan M. Evidence for public health policy on inequalities: 1: the reality according to policymakers. J Epidemiol Community Health 2004; 58: 811816.
  • 39
    Whitehead M, Petticrew M, Graham H, Macintyre SJ, Bambra C, Egan M. Evidence for public health policy on inequalities: 2: assembling the evidence jigsaw. J Epidemiol Community Health 2004; 58: 817821.
  • 40
    Popkin BM. An overview on the nutrition transition and its health implications: the Bellagio meeting. Public Health Nutr 2002; 5: 93103.
  • 41
    Popkin BM, Nielsen SJ. The sweetening of the world’s diet. Obes Res 2003; 11: 18.
  • 42
    Popkin BM. The nutrition transition in the developing world. Dev Policy Rev 2003; 21: 581597.
  • 43
    Sturm R, Ringel J, Andreyava R. Increasing obesity rates and disability trends. Health Affairs 2004; 23: 17.
  • 44
    US Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity, 2001. US Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service: Washington, DC, 2001.
  • 45
    Sturm R. The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs. Health Affairs 2002; 21: 245253.
  • 46
    Yach D, Stuckler D, Brownell KD. Epidemiologic and economic consequences of the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Nat Med 2006; 12: 6266.
  • 47
    Witt L. Why we’re losing the war against obesity. Am Demographics 2003; 25: 2731.
  • 48
    Levy E, Levy P, Le Pen C, Basdevant A. The economic cost of obesity: the french situation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995; 19: 788792.
  • 49
    Kemper HC, Stasse-Wolthuis M, Bosman W. The prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity: summary of the advisory report by the health council of The Netherlands. Neth J Med 2004; 62: 1071.
  • 50
    Burton G. Commissioner sounds alarm on rising obesity. EU Rep 2003; 12.
  • 51
    Byrne D. Commissioner David Byrne says ‘Time to Take on Obesity’ as WHO Debates Worldwide Strategy. Speech 85/04. Commission of the European Communities: Brussels, 2004.
  • 52
    Byrne D. EPress Release: U Commissioner David Byrne Says ‘Time to Take on Obesity’ as WHO Debates Worldwide Strategy. Commission of the European Communities: Brussels, 2004.
  • 53
    California Department of Health Services Cancer and Nutrition Section. California 5 a Day. Department of Health Service, California: Sacramento, CA, 2005.
  • 54
    Baranowski T, Cullen KW, Nicklas T, Thompson D, Baranowski J. Are current health behavioral change models helpful in guiding prevention of weight gain efforts? Obes Res 2003; 11: 23S43S.
  • 55
    Carroll A, Craypo L, Samuels S. Evaluating Nutrition and Physical Activity Social Marketing Campaigns: A Review of the Literature for Use in Community Campaigns. Samuels & Associates and the Center for Advanced Studies in Nutrition and Social Marketing, University of California, Davis: Davis, CA, 2000, p. 60.
  • 56
    Weber Shandwick. Obesity: Challenges and Implications for Europe. Weber Shandwick Worldwide and International Business Leaders’ Forum: London, 2004.
  • 57
    Rothschild M. Carrots, sticks and promises: a conceptual framework for the management of public health and social issues behaviours. J Market 1999; 63: 2437, October.
  • 58
    Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, commonsense cure. Lancet 2002; 360: 473482.
  • 59
    Strauss RS, Knight J. Influence of the home environment on the development of obesity in children. Pediatrics 1999; 103: e85.
  • 60
    Egger G, Swinburn B. An ‘ecological’ approach to the obesity pandemic. BMJ 1997; 315: 477480.
  • 61
    Comuzzie AG, Allison DB. The search for human obesity genes. Science 1998; 280: 13741377.
  • 62
    Boutin P, Dina C, Vasseur F, Dubois S, Corset L, Séron K, Bekris L, Cabellon J, Neve B, Vasseur-Delannoy V, Chikri M, Charles MA, Clement K, Lernmark A, Froguel P. GAD2 on chromosome 10p12 is a candidate gene for human obesity. Public Library of Science 2003; 1: E68.
  • 63
    Lobstein T. Suppose we all ate a healthy diet . . . ? Eurohealth 2004; 10: 812.
  • 64
    Irz X. Impact of WHO Dietary Recommendations on World Sugar Consumption, Production and Trade. Report prepared for the World Sugar Research Organisation. University of Reading Department of Agriculture and Food Economics: Reading, 2003.
  • 65
    Irz X, Shankar B, Srinivasan C. Dietary Recommendations in the Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (WHO Technical Report Series 916, 2003): Potential Impact on Consumption, Production and Trade of Selected Food Products. Report for the International Federation of Agricultural Producers and Institute for European Food Studies. University of Reading Department of Agricultural and Food Economics: Reading, 2003, p. 59.
  • 66
    Irz X, Srinivasan CS. Impact of WHO dietary recommendations on world sugar consumption, production and trade. Eurochoices 2004; 3: 2425.
  • 67
    Leggett J. Half Gone: Oil, Gas, Hot Air and the Global Energy Crisis. Portobello Books: London, 2005.
  • 68
    Lakdawalla D, Philipson T. The Growth of Obesity and Technological Change: A Theoretical and Empirical Examination. NBER Working Paper No. 8946. National Bureau of Economic Research: New York, 2002.
  • 69
    Hastings G, Stead M, McDermott L, Forsyth A, Mackintosh AM, Rayner M, Godrey C, Caraher M, Angus K. Does Food Promotion Influence Children? A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Food Standards Agency: London, 2003.
  • 70
    Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes 1977–98. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 289: 450453.
  • 71
    Offer A. Body weight and self-control in the United States and Britain since the 1950s. Soc Hist Med 2001; 14: 79106.
  • 72
    Lupton D. Food, the Body and the Self. Sage: London, 1996.
  • 73
    Orbach S. Hunger Strike: The Anorectic’s Struggle as a Metaphor for Our Age. Faber and Faber: London, 1986.
  • 74
    Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA (eds). Obesity: Theory and Therapy. Raven Press: New York, 1993.
  • 75
    Hill JO, Peters JC. Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic. Science 1998; 280: 13711374.
  • 76
    Popkin BM. The nutrition transition in low-income countries: an emerging crisis. Nutr Rev 1994: 5228552298.
  • 77
    Popkin BM. An overview on the nutrition transition and its health implications: the Bellagio meeting. Public Health Nutr 2001; 5: 93103.
  • 78
    Popkin BM. Urbanisation, lifestyle changes and the nutrition transition. World Dev 1999; 27: 19051915.
  • 79
    Summerbell CD, Waters E, Edmunds L, Kelly S, Brown T, Campbell KJ. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005 Jul 20; 3: CD001871.
  • 80
    Prättälä R, Roos G, Hulshof K, Sihto M. Food and nutrition policies and interventions. In: Mackenbach J, Bakker M (eds). Reducing Inequalities in Health: A European Perspective. Routledge: London, 2002, pp. 104124.
  • 81
    Oxford Health Alliance Working Group. Economic Consequences of Chronic Diseases and the Economic Rationale for Public and Private Intervention. Oxford Health Alliance: Oxford: 2005.
  • 82
    Cockett R. Thinking the Unthinkable: Think-Tanks and the Economic Counter-Revolution 1931–83. HarperCollins: London, 1994.
  • 83
    Business in the Community. Responsible Marketing to Children. Exploring the Impact on Adults’ Attitudes and Behaviour, in Business in the Community, Marketplace Responsibility. Business in the Community: London, 2005.
  • 84
    WHO. WHO Program Budget 2002–03: Performance Assessment Report. November 2004. Geneva: WHO. p12. World Health Organisation: Geneva, 2004.
  • 85
    WHO. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. 57th World Health Assembly. WHA 57.17, agenda item 12.6. World Health Assembly: Geneva, 2004.
  • 86
    WHO/FAO. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 916 (TRS 916). World Health Organisation and Food and Agriculture Organisation: Geneva, 2003.
  • 87
    Elinde LS. Public Health Aspects of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Statens Folkhalsoinstitut/National Institute of Public Health: Stockholm, 2003.
  • 88
    Heasman M, Mellentin J. The Functional Foods Revolution: Healthy People, Healthy Profits? Earthscan: London, 2001.
  • 89
    Lang T, Rayner G. Why Health is the Key to Farming and Food. Report to the Commission on the Future of Farming and Food Chaired by Sir Don Curry. UK Public Health Association, Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health Medicine, National Heart Forum and Health Development Agency: London, 2002.
  • 90
    Schmidhuber J, Traill B. The Changing Structure of Diets in the EU in Relation to Healthy Eating Guidelines, in AgriFood Network. London: unpublished paper from Food and Agriculture Organisation/University of Reading Department of Agriculture and Food Economics. 2004.
  • 91
    Hawkes C. Marketing Food to Children: The Global Regulatory Environment. World Health Organisation: Geneva, 2004.
  • 92
    Jackson T. Motivating Sustainable Consumption. Report to the SDRN. Sustainable Development Research Network: London, 2005.
  • 93
    Layard R. Happiness: Lessons from a New Science. Allen Lane: London, 2005.
  • 94
    Paulus I. The Search for Pure Food. Martin Robertson: Oxford, 1974.
  • 95
    Kumanyika S, Jeffery RW, Morabia A, Ritenbaugh C, Antipatis VJ. Public health approaches to the prevention of obesity. Working Group of the International Obesity TaskForce. Obesity prevention: the case for action. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 2642526436.
  • 96
    Lang T. Food control or food democracy: re-engaging nutrition to civil society, the state and the food supply chain. Public Health Nutr 2005; 8: 730737.
  • 97
    Huynen MMTE, Maartens P, Hilderlin HBM. The health impacts of globalisation: a conceptual framework. Globalization Health 2005; 1: 1426.
  • 98
    Wanless D. Securing Good Health for the Whole Population. HM Treasury: London, 2004.
  • 99
    Blair T. Our Nation’s Future: Public Health. Speech by the Prime Minister on healthy living. Prime Minister’s Office: London, 2006. Nottingham. 26 July (accessed October 2006).
  • 100
    Omran AR 1971 The epidemiologic transition: a theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Meml Fund Q 2006; 49: 509538.
  • 101
    Omran AR, The epidemiologic transition theory: a preliminary update. J Trop Pediatr 1983; 29: 2930529316.
  • 102
    Omran AR. The epidemiologic transition theory revisited thirty years later. World Health Stat Q 1998; 51: 51995119.
  • 103
    Porter D. Health, Civilisation and the State. A History of Public Health from Ancient to Modern Times. Routledge: London, 1998.
  • 104
    Halliday S. The Great Stink of London: Sir Joseph Bazalgette and the Cleansing of the Victorian Capital. Stroud: Sutton, 1999. pp. xii, 210, [8] of plates.
  • 105
    Griffiths S, Jewell T, Donnelly P. Public health in practice: the three domains of public health. Public Health 2005; 119: 907913.
  • 106
    Faculty of Public Health. Public Health and the Role of the Faculty. Faculty of Public Health: London, 2005.
  • 107
    Fogel R. Nutrition, Physiological Capital, and Economic Growth. Pan-American Health Organisation and Inter-American Development Bank: Washington, DC, 2002.
  • 108
    Acheson D. Public Health in England. Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Future Development of the Public Health Function. Department of Health: London, 1998.
  • 109
    HM Government. Securing the Future: Delivering UK Sustainable Development Strategy. Cm 6467. HM Government: London, 2005.