Using the dietary intake and chronic disease condition data of 39 843 adults aged over 18 years old from the 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey in China (2002 CNHS) logistic regression analysis was applied to calculate the odd ratios (ORs) of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia for the various dietary patterns of the subjects. The higher percentage of energy intake from cereals was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI), lower total serum cholesterol (TC) and lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), while it was significantly associated with lower risk of overweight/obesity, hypertension, high TC, high serum triglycerides (TG) and high LDL-C, but the prevalence of underweight was significantly higher in the cluster of subjects with cereal energy share more than 75%. The higher percentage of energy intake of fat was related to higher BMI, higher TC and higher LDL-C which were associated with a high risk of overweight/obesity, hypertension, TC and TG. The study confirmed the important role of dietary pattern in chronic disease control. In particular, an optimum energy contributed from cereals ranged from 55% to 65% of total dietary energy intake and dietary fat energy share no more than 30% which should be the focus of preventive measures.