The influence of calcium and dairy food intake on energy balance is the object of a growing scientific literature. This manuscript presents the information discussed by subject experts during a symposium on calcium and obesity, initially planned to document in a comprehensive manner the role of calcium and dairy food on energy balance and body composition. This manuscript is organized into 13 propositions statements which either resume the presentation of an invited speaker or integrate recent developments in calcium-related obesity research. More specifically, the effects of calcium and dairy consumption on body weight and adiposity level, appetite, weight loss intervention outcome, lipid-lipoprotein profile and the risk to develop metabolic syndrome are discussed together with the metabolic mechanisms proposed to explain these effects. Taken together, the observations presented in this manuscript suggest that calcium and dairy food intake can influence many components of energy and fat balance, indicating that inadequate calcium/dairy intake may increase the risk of positive energy balance and of other health problems.